Lebanon Include

Lebanon Include

Lebanon is located in the Middle East, bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south. To the west, it is flanked by the Mediterranean Sea. Its strategic location has made it a crossroads of civilizations throughout history.

Geography

Lebanon’s geography is characterized by diverse terrain, including coastal plains, mountain ranges, and fertile valleys, offering a variety of climates and ecosystems.

Climate

Lebanon has a Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. Coastal areas experience moderate temperatures year-round, while inland regions, particularly in the mountains, may see significant variations in temperature and precipitation.

Fauna

Lebanon is home to a variety of wildlife, including mammals such as foxes, wolves, and hyenas, as well as bird species like eagles, vultures, and migratory birds. The country’s diverse ecosystems support a rich array of flora and fauna, from cedar forests to wetlands and coastal habitats.

Longest Rivers

The Litani River is the longest river in Lebanon, flowing approximately 140 kilometers from its source in the Bekaa Valley to the Mediterranean Sea. Other rivers in Lebanon include the Orontes and Nahr Ibrahim rivers.

Highest Mountains

Lebanon is known for its rugged mountain ranges, including the Mount Lebanon range, which is home to several peaks exceeding 2,000 meters in elevation. The highest peak in Lebanon is Qurnat as Sawda, reaching 3,088 meters (10,131 feet) above sea level.

History

Lebanon’s history is a tapestry of ancient civilizations, colonial powers, and modern conflicts, shaping its identity as a melting pot of cultures and traditions.

Prehistory

The territory of present-day Lebanon has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with evidence of human settlement dating back thousands of years. Phoenician city-states, such as Byblos and Tyre, emerged along the coast, establishing maritime trade networks and contributing to the development of civilization in the region.

Ancient Period

Lebanon was part of several ancient empires, including the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and Greeks. The Phoenicians, renowned for their seafaring skills and commerce, played a significant role in the Mediterranean world, spreading their influence through trade and colonization.

Roman and Byzantine Rule

Lebanon became a Roman province in the 1st century BCE, experiencing a period of prosperity and cultural flourishing under Roman and later Byzantine rule. The region’s cities, such as Baalbek and Anjar, became centers of commerce, religion, and learning, leaving behind impressive archaeological sites and monuments.

Arab Conquest

In the 7th century CE, Lebanon was conquered by the Arab Muslims, bringing Islam to the region and integrating it into the Islamic Caliphate. Lebanon’s religious landscape became increasingly diverse, with Muslim and Christian communities coexisting and contributing to the country’s cultural heritage.

Ottoman Rule

Lebanon came under Ottoman rule in the 16th century, enduring centuries of Ottoman administration and influence. The Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, established in the 19th century, granted autonomy to the region and laid the groundwork for Lebanon’s modern political identity.

Modern Age

Lebanon gained independence from France in 1943, becoming a sovereign republic and establishing a democratic system of government. However, the country has faced numerous challenges, including political instability, sectarian tensions, and civil conflict, particularly during the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990) and subsequent periods of unrest.

Demographics

Lebanon has a population of approximately 6.8 million people, with a diverse mix of ethnicities, religions, and cultures.

Ethnicity

The majority of Lebanon’s population is Arab, with significant minority groups including Armenians, Kurds, and Assyrians. Lebanon’s ethnic diversity is reflected in its multicultural society and rich cultural heritage.

Religion

Lebanon is known for its religious diversity, with Islam and Christianity being the two dominant religions. The country’s population is divided among various sects, including Sunni and Shia Muslims, Maronite, Greek Orthodox, and Armenian Christians, Druze, and others.

Language

Arabic is the official language of Lebanon, spoken by the majority of the population. French and English are also widely spoken, especially in urban areas and among educated elites, due to historical and cultural ties with France and the West.

Culture

Lebanon’s culture is a fusion of Arab, Mediterranean, and Western influences, reflecting its unique historical and geographical position. The country’s cuisine, music, and arts are celebrated for their diversity and sophistication, drawing inspiration from a rich tapestry of traditions and customs.

Administrative Divisions

Lebanon is divided into eight governorates (muhafazat), each with its own administrative authority.

List of Administrative Divisions with Population

  1. Beirut Governorate – Population: 2.4 million
  2. Mount Lebanon Governorate – Population: 2.1 million
  3. North Governorate – Population: 1 million
  4. South Governorate – Population: 700,000
  5. Nabatieh Governorate – Population: 400,000
  6. Bekaa Governorate – Population: 800,000
  7. Baalbek-Hermel Governorate – Population: 400,000
  8. Akkar Governorate – Population: 500,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Beirut
  2. Tripoli
  3. Sidon
  4. Tyre
  5. Zahle
  6. Nabatieh
  7. Baalbek
  8. Jounieh
  9. Byblos
  10. Batroun

Education Systems

Education in Lebanon is provided by a mix of public and private institutions, offering a range of academic programs from pre-school to university level. While basic education is free and compulsory, private schools and universities play a significant role in the country’s education system. American University of Beirut and Lebanese American University are among the top universities in Lebanon, offering world-class education in various fields of study.

Transportation

Lebanon has a well-developed transportation infrastructure, with options for air travel, road transportation, and maritime shipping.

Airports

Lebanon has one international airport, Beirut-Rafic Hariri International Airport, located in the capital city of Beirut. The airport serves as the main hub for domestic and international flights, connecting Lebanon with major cities around the world.

Roads

Lebanon has a network of highways and roads connecting urban centers and rural areas. The total length of highways in Lebanon is approximately 7,000 kilometers, with major routes such as the Beirut-Damascus Highway and the Beirut-Tripoli Highway linking cities and towns across the country.

Ports

Lebanon has several major ports along its coastline, including the Port of Beirut, which is the largest and busiest port in the country. Other ports include the Port of Tripoli and the Port of Sidon, which serve as important hubs for maritime shipping and trade.

Country Facts

  • Population: 6.8 million
  • Capital: Beirut
  • Language: Arabic (official), French, English
  • Religion: Islam, Christianity
  • Ethnicity: Arab (majority), Armenian, Kurdish, Assyrian
  • Currency: Lebanese Pound (LBP)
  • ISO Country Codes: LB
  • International Calling Code: +961
  • Top-level Domain: .lb