Month: May 2024

Lebanon Brief History

Lebanon Brief History

Lebanon Country Facts:

Lebanon, located in the Middle East along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, is renowned for its diverse culture, ancient history, and stunning landscapes. The capital and largest city is Beirut. With a rich tapestry of ethnic and religious communities, including Maronite Christians, Sunni and Shia Muslims, and Druze, Lebanon boasts a vibrant cultural heritage. Despite enduring periods of conflict and instability, Lebanon remains a hub of commerce, tourism, and cultural exchange in the region.

Ancient Lebanon and Phoenician Civilization (3000 BCE – 64 BCE)

Early Settlements

Prehistoric Inhabitants

The region of present-day Lebanon has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with evidence of early settlements dating back to the Neolithic period.

Phoenician Civilization

City-States and Maritime Trade

Lebanon was home to the Phoenicians, a seafaring civilization known for their advanced shipbuilding techniques, maritime trade networks, and alphabet.

Classical Period and Hellenistic Rule (64 BCE – 636 CE)

Roman Influence

Roman Conquest

Lebanon came under Roman rule following the conquest of the region by Pompey the Great in 64 BCE, becoming part of the Roman province of Syria.

Hellenistic Culture

Baalbek and Tyre

Under Roman and later Byzantine rule, cities such as Baalbek and Tyre flourished as centers of Hellenistic culture, architecture, and commerce.

Arab Conquest and Islamic Golden Age (636 – 1516)

Islamic Expansion

Arab Invasion

In the 7th century, Lebanon was conquered by the Arab Muslim armies, ushering in the spread of Islam and Arabization of the region.

Umayyad and Abbasid Rule

Cultural Flourishing

During the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, Lebanon experienced a cultural and intellectual renaissance, contributing to the Islamic Golden Age.

Ottoman Rule and Mount Lebanon (1516 – 1918)

Ottoman Empire

Millets System

Lebanon was part of the Ottoman Empire for over four centuries, governed through the millets system, which granted religious autonomy to various communities.

Mount Lebanon

Autonomous Rule

In the 19th century, Mount Lebanon gained a degree of autonomy under the rule of local leaders known as the Ma’ans and later the Shihabs.

French Mandate and Independence (1918 – 1943)

End of Ottoman Rule

World War I

Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Lebanon came under French mandate control as part of the Sykes-Picot Agreement.

Greater Lebanon

Formation of Modern Lebanon

In 1920, the League of Nations established Greater Lebanon, expanding its borders and incorporating various ethnic and religious groups.

Modern Lebanon and Civil War (1943 – 1990)

Independence Era

National Pact

Lebanon gained independence from France in 1943, adopting a power-sharing arrangement known as the National Pact, which allocated political positions based on religious affiliation.

Civil War

Political Instability

From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon was ravaged by a brutal civil war fueled by sectarian tensions, foreign interventions, and political rivalries.

Post-Civil War Reconstruction and Challenges (1990 – Present)

Reconstruction Efforts

Taif Agreement

The Taif Agreement of 1989 ended the civil war and laid the foundation for post-war reconstruction and political reforms.

Political Fragmentation

Syrian Occupation and Hezbollah

Lebanon faced challenges of political fragmentation, Syrian occupation, and the rise of Hezbollah as a powerful political and military force.

Regional Conflicts

Israeli Invasions

Lebanon has been affected by regional conflicts, including Israeli invasions in 2006 and ongoing tensions with neighboring Syria.

Cultural Resilience

Literary and Artistic Expression

Despite the challenges, Lebanon’s cultural scene remains vibrant, with a flourishing arts, literature, and culinary heritage that reflects its rich history and diverse influences.

Lebanon Population

Lebanon Population

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Lebanon is 5,469,612, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 5,469,612
Population growth rate -6.68%
Birth rate 14.30 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall 75.46 years
Men 73.86 years
Women 77.13 years
Age structure
0-14 years 23.32%
15-64 years 69.65%
65 years and above 7.03%
Median age 29.40 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 0.96
Population density 525.92 residents per km²
Urbanization 87.50%
95% Arabs, 4% Armenians, Kurdish minority
Muslims 59.7% (including Shiites, Sunnis, Druze, Isma’ilites, Alawis and Nusayri), Christians 39% (including Maronites, Catholics (Roman Catholic), Orthodox Christians, Catholic, Protestants), Jews NEGL% Others 1, 3% note: 17 religious sects are recognized
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.730
HDI ranking 93rd out of 194

People in Lebanon

We do not know exactly how many people currently live in Lebanon. It is probably around seven million.

Most of the people live in the big cities like Beirut, Tripoli, Zahleh or Sidon.

Most of the residents are Arabs, followed by the Armenians and some Kurds and other population groups. In addition, there are many Palestinians who live in Lebanon, most of them in the refugee camps near the big cities. More and more refugees from Syria are going to Lebanon. Approximately 1.7 million people fled the civil war in their country to Lebanon. You have to imagine, a country with almost five million residents, the size of Hesse, takes in 1.7 million people and supplies them. Only some of the refugees are officially registered, a large number are not legally in the country. One then speaks of illegal immigration.

Languages in Lebanon

The official language in Lebanon is Arabic, but many people also speak French or English.

Religions in Lebanon

There are Muslims and Christians and a few Jews in Lebanon. But there are some subgroups in every religion, so that Lebanon has a total of 18 religious groups, all of which are officially recognized. In Lebanon you will find eleven Christian, six Muslim and one Jewish community.

The largest Christian denomination are the Maronites. There are also Roman Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Armenian Catholic and and and…

With the Muslims one differentiates again between the Shiites and the Sunnis, in addition there are the Druze, the Alawi and others. Only a few Jews live in Lebanon.

Half of the population in Lebanon is under 29 and many young people are unemployed. Many people live in poverty. Often the religious conflicts are actually social conflicts. Because one group is better off, for example the Christians, and one group is worse off, for example the Shiites, then there is envy, conflict and, in the worst case, war. In the end, people of different religions may fight, but the real conflict is that some have more and others less. So it’s more of a social conflict than a religious one, as is often the case by the way.

Lebanon Overview

Lebanon, located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, is renowned for its rich history, diverse culture, and stunning natural landscapes. Its capital, Beirut, pulsates with life, offering a vibrant mix of ancient ruins, bustling souks, and lively nightlife. The country is famed for its delicious cuisine, influenced by Middle Eastern and Mediterranean flavors, as well as its historic sites such as the ancient city of Byblos and the awe-inspiring Baalbek ruins. Despite its relatively small size, Lebanon packs a punch with its captivating blend of old-world charm and modern sophistication.

  • Capital City: Beirut
  • Population: Approximately 6.8 million
  • Area: 10,452 square kilometers
  • Full Country Name: Lebanese Republic
  • Currency: Lebanese Pound (LBP)
  • Language: Arabic
  • ISO Country Codes: LB, LBN

Bordering Countries of Lebanon

Lebanon is a small country located in the Middle East, bordered by Syria to the north and east, Israel to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea to the west. Syria is Lebanon’s largest neighbor, with a shared border of 375 miles. The two countries share similar histories as well as ethnic and religious diversity. Syria has been involved in several military conflicts with Israel since 1948, and has had an uneasy relationship with Lebanon since then. The Syrian civil war has had a major impact on Lebanon, both politically and economically.

Israel is located directly south of Lebanon, separated by just 40 miles of land. The two countries have had a strained relationship for decades due to political differences and unresolved border disputes. In 2006, Israel invaded parts of southern Lebanon during their conflict with Hezbollah militants based there. There have also been several military skirmishes between the two sides over the years. Despite this tension, there have been some attempts at cooperation between Lebanese and Israeli officials in recent years in an effort to maintain stability along their shared border.

To the west lies the Mediterranean Sea which provides Lebanon with access to international trade routes as well as providing them with important sources of income such as tourism and fishing. Aside from economic benefits, the sea also serves as an important buffer against potential threats from other countries such as Syria or Israel. The coastline also contains some beautiful scenery and beaches that attract visitors from all over the world each year.