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Spain History – The First Christian States Part 8

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 8

According to, the limits of the respective conquests in eastern and southern Spain were fixed by the agreements of Cazola (Cazorla?) And Almizra concluded between Aragon and Castile respectively in 1179 and 1244, for which Murcia and its kingdom were closed to the Aragonese conquest., and therefore also the surviving Muslim monarchy of Grenada. Navarre was the sacrificed; García Ramírez managed to preserve the integrity of the state from the pressure of the neighboring sovereigns; but during the reign of Sancho VII the agreement of Cazola, establishing the Sierra del Moncayo as the borders of Castile and Aragon, closed forever the southern route to Navarre, which could save only Tudela from the hands of Aragon; and in vain Sancho VII moved to the rescue by allying himself with the Muslims, whose help he had asked for by going personally to Morocco: then the domain of Alfonso VIII of Castile and León became Alava (1200), while Guipúzcoa and Vizcaya had long since entered the Castilian sphere of influence. Indeed, Navarre did not lose its independence because in the last years of his life Sancho VII made an agreement with James I of Aragon, by which the two sovereigns mutually committed themselves to recognize each other as heirs of the state. of the other. And if, on the other hand, upon the death of the sovereign, Theobald son of Theobald of Champagne and White sister of the deceased ascended the throne, Navarre withdrew from the political life of Spain and entrusted the protection of its freedom to the discords that separated Aragon and Castile, always in dispute for its possession, and for the protection of the French monarchy, interested in preventing a powerful state from appearing on that dangerous stretch of its border: the end of the disagreements between the two major peninsular states and their even temporary triumph over the French monarchy will coincide with the decline of the independence of its Spanish part.

Finally, as regards the relations between Catalonia united with Aragon and southern France, the period of the greatest Catalan-Aragonese expansion beyond the Pyrenees coincided with the reign of Peter II. Ramón Berenguer IV had already intervened in the affairs of Provence during his nephew’s minor age the end of the disagreements between the two major peninsular states and their even temporary triumph over the French monarchy will coincide with the decline of the independence of its Spanish part. Finally, as regards the relations between Catalonia united with Aragon and southern France, the period of the greatest Catalan-Aragonese expansion beyond the Pyrenees coincided with the reign of Peter II. Ramón Berenguer IV had already intervened in the affairs of Provence during his nephew’s minor age the end of the disagreements between the two major peninsular states and their even temporary triumph over the French monarchy will coincide with the decline of the independence of its Spanish part. Finally, as regards the relations between Catalonia united with Aragon and southern France, the period of the greatest Catalan-Aragonese expansion beyond the Pyrenees coincided with the reign of Peter II. Ramón Berenguer IV had already intervened in the affairs of Provence during his nephew’s minor ageex fratreRamón Berenguer III, who had had that county from his father; renewing the traditional conflict of his family and with the help of various feudatars of southern France and Henry II of England (1159), he had defended him from the attacks of the Count of Toulouse and his allies De Baux, and had succeeded in making him have the investiture of the county by Federico Barbarossa together with that of Arles and Forcalquier. Then, his son Alfonso II had inherited Provence from his cousin, who died at the siege of Nice; supported by the King of England, he had once again repelled the assaults of the Count of Toulouse; and his vassals had become the lords of Bearn (1170), of Bigorra (1175), of Nîmes, of Béziers, of Carcassonne (1179). With Peter II further steps were taken: by marrying Mary of Montpellier he secured the inheritance of his dominions; he was always next to his brother Alfonso who had had Provence from his father; he obtained the friendship of the count of Comminges and ceded the Aran valley to him as a fief (1201); even the Count of Toulouse Raymond VI became his ally and brother-in-law, so that it seemed close to implementing the political unity of the country under the scepter of the Aragonese. But instead the king was overwhelmed by the crusade against the Albigensians; and, after having tried in vain a lasting agreement with Simon of Montfort, he was beaten and killed at Muret on 12 September 1213. His defeat marked the end of the Catalan-Aragonese dominance in southern France, to the benefit of the French monarchy; and the liquidation of the previous imperialism of his state was provided by James I of Aragon, who with the treaty of Corbeil in 1258 ceded all his rights in the region to Louis IX, except Montpellier which he had from his mother. But, in exchange, from the Capetian he had the renunciation of all the rights that he could have boasted over the Catalan counties as the successor of Charlemagne, and then, in confirmation of the treaty, a few years later, he obtained that the French crown prince Philip marry his daughter Isabella. In this way, after centuries of disputes involving the regions of uncertain dominion located on both sides of the Pyrenees, Catalonia began to clearly separate from France. And in this regard it should be added that, not even Alfonso VIII having managed to occupy the Duchy of Gascony, dowry of his wife Leonor Plantageneta (1204-06), the Pyrenean chain also became the border of Castile.

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 8

Mexico in the 1930’s Part 2

Mexico in the 1930’s Part 2

The administration of this industry was entrusted to the Confederation of Mexican workers, which celebrated the presidential decision with a day of national jubilation. Moreover, the valorisation of workers ‘trade unions and their insertion into national life corresponds to Cárdenas’ program, as is one of the essential aspects of his policy that of aiming for the approval and favor of vast social circles, rather than isolated politicians.. In fact, he aimed to conquer the agricultural masses, with the application of the law on agrarian reform, those workers, with particular legislative provisions and with the laws of nationalization, and the army with an improvement in wages and salaries and with a radicalization of the military system.

In the popular education sector, the Cárdenas government continued the fight against illiteracy, which still stood at 59 percent in 1930. To this end, he increased the budget of the Ministry of Education and stimulated the construction of new schools (10,000 in 1935, 11,000 in 1936, 13,600 in 1937).

With regard to religious politics and the conflict between Church and State, the Cárdenas has, in a certain sense, attenuated the intransigent lines of Calles’ secular politics, or at least has attenuated the demagogic character of the same, since it is now believed that the Calles he used the anti-religious struggle to satisfy the revolutionary instincts of the masses and distract their attention from the socio-economic problems which he preferred to leave unsolved. That this more elastic tendency of the Cárdenas corresponds to the reality of things is also confirmed in a certain sense by the apostolic letter to the Mexican Church of Pius XI of March 28, 1937 which, while condemning the policy of the Mexican government, gave a glimpse of certain possibilities of conciliation.. In domestic politics, in May 1938 Cárdenas vigorously acted against the gen. Cedillo who had rebelled in the state of San Luis Potosí.

In the field of international relations, Mexico’s position in recent years has been marked by the policy of “good neighborliness” with the United States of America (which absorb most of Mexican exports) and by manifestations of societalism and pro-Sovietism in the relations with other states (in particular in the Ethiopian and Spanish questions). The hoped-for “Mexicanization” of the economy, which backfires completely against the foreign capital employed there and, in particular, the mentioned nationalization of oil resources, have aroused the protests of the most affected states, Great Britain and the United States, and have highlighted the reasons for a disagreement that will not be so easy to settle, because the governments concerned appear determined to carry out the work of defending the interests of their citizens to the end. The “good neighborly” policy with the United States has been compromised to a certain extent; as for England, the situation has worsened considerably due to the breakdown of diplomatic relations between the two countries, which took place on the initiative of Mexico which on May 14 recalled its representative in London (the British government replied, on the 26th, with the reminder of his representative in Mexico). It will be necessary to see if a compromise and understanding formula will still be possible, bearing in mind the strategic convenience for England of supplying Mexican oil.

All this work of structural reforms of the economy, the agitated social struggles and the extremist orientation of domestic and foreign politics seem to have served to tighten more completely around the idea of ​​the reconquest the Mexican people, but they have still had little success in stimulating agricultural and industrial production. Undoubtedly, the agrarian reform constitutes a very complex provision whose developments it is not yet possible to discern, as it is still being implemented. It has upset the lines of the Mexican economy and has wreaked havoc in agricultural production. The other social changes have also had a disturbing result, so that the only real finding that can be made is that Mexican productive capacity has improved very slightly. The population, on the other hand, according to official estimates which cannot be very precise due to the backwardness of the statistical services, would have increased by 2 between 1931 (date of the last census) and June 1936. 321,000 units, that is, the increase of this five-year period would have been greater than that of the decade 1921-31. It should also be borne in mind that Mexico is pursuing a policy of pronounced self-sufficiency, so that the found deficient improvement of certain branches of production finds its compensation in the improvement of new ones. During the recovery phase of the world economy, between 1934 and 1937, Mexico was favored by the high prices of certain raw materials, especially metals, which compensated for the deficiencies in production. The trade balance therefore showed a satisfactory upward trend as can be seen from the following data (in millions of pesos):

Finance. – We give below the figures, in millions of pesos, of the balance sheets since 1932.

As of December 31, 1936, the external debt amounted to 892 million and the internal debt to 434 million.

In July 1933 the peso was pegged to the dollar at the rate of 3.55 pesos per 1 dollar; at the beginning of 1938, however, the exchange rate was 4.28 pesos per 1 dollar. In connection with North American politics, the demonetization of silver was decreed on April 25, 1935. An important monetary-banking reform was then implemented on August 28, 1936 with two decrees that each conferred unlimited liberating power to the new notes of the Bank of Mexico (which became the sole issuing bank) and to the monetary certificates of the value of 5 US dollars, representing coins and silver bars, and to fix the maximum emission (no more than 50 pesos per capita in view tickets and commitments) and the minimum legal reserve (25% of which 4 /5 in gold and currencies and 1/5 in silver), the other to specify the central bank figure of the Bank of Mexico (which had ceased all private banking activities since 1932) and to regulate credit. On 1 September 1936 the silver coins were put back into circulation.

As of November 30, 1937, notes in circulation amounted to 288 million and as of August 31, the gold reserve was 51 million.

Navy. – New units: Gunboats: 2 (DurangoZacatecas) built in 1934-35 in Spain, of 1600 t. and 19 knots, armed with 2/102 and various anti-aircraft weapons, capable of carrying 500 men and 80 quadrupeds; 3 (PotosíQuerétaroGuanajuato) built in 1934-35 in Spain, from 1300 t. and 19 knots. armed with 3/102 and various anti-aircraft weapons, capable of carrying 250 men and 20 quadrupeds.

Coast Guard Cutter: 10 (G. 20- G. 29) built in 1934-36 in Spain, of 160 t. and 26 knots, armed with 2/25 anti-aircraft and 4 machine gunners.

Merchant Navy. The merchant navy was constituted as of June 30, 1937 by 54 ships per ton. 41,371, mainly steam. Cabotage is reserved for the flag, but has been opened, on a temporary basis, by foreign shipping due to the shortage of domestic ships.

Mexico in the 1930's 2

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 7

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 7

According to, Alfonso IX of León reconquered Cáceres (1227) and took possession of Mérida and Badajoz; and at the same time Ferdinand III of Castile occupied Andújar and other places near Cordoba. And when this latter sovereign also had the crown of León, with united forces, in agreement with James I of Aragon and with the help of the religious orders of Calatrava and Alcántara, he conquered Truijllo, Montiel, Medellín, Alhange, Magacela (1232-35), in July 1233 he took Ubeda, on June 29 1236 he capitulated Cordova, in 1241 he made the king of Murcia his vassal and occupied almost the whole state; in 1244-45 he went as far as Granada and the following year he obtained from his king Jaén, a tribute and promises, kept, aid in its further ventures; in 1247 he conquered Carmona; on 23 November 1248 he forced Seville to open its doors to him, and spent the last years of his life in Andalusia, where he took Jerex, Medina Sidonia, Lebrija, Arcos, Rota, Santa María del Puerto, Sanlúcar, going as far as Cadiz. At the same time, James I of Aragon in September 1229 landed on the island of Majorca and on the last day of the year he entered Palma; in 1232 he made the Muslims of Menorca tributary; in 1235 he obtained Iviza, while other successes brought him back to the kingdom of Valenza, where he and his followers occupied Ares, Morella (1232), Burriana, Peñiscola (1233), Alzamora (1234) and reached the Júcar; then, giving himself all to the conquest of this kingdom, he forced his capital to surrender on 28 September 1238 and completed its occupation in 1245, when seized Játiva, Alcira, Biar; finally, he granted his help to Alfonso X, son of Ferdinand III, when the kingdom of Murcia rose up against Castile, of which he was a tributary, and for his ally he conquered Elche, Alicante, Murcia (1266).

Finally, in the same epoch the various Christian states decided or saw their future decided, perfecting in this respect the work of reorganization already begun in previous years. And, moreover, the particular development that each of the states gave to the reconquest and that we have indicated, must be considered precisely as one of the expressions and consequences of the direction gradually assumed by their life; the others were the division among the various monarchies of the territories previously restored to Christianity, the definitive territorial delimitation of Spain, which had its border in the Pyrenees, and, for some states, the determination of the direction that their expansion beyond of the seas. In the complex process of clarification, with respect to the previous arrangement, negative elements were the separation of Navarre from Aragon, the confirmed independence of Portugal and, temporarily, the division between the kingdom of León and the kingdom of Castile; on the other hand, a positive element was the union between Aragon and the Catalan states, which put an end to their peninsular disputes, allowed them to gather all their energies in an attempt to strengthen their expansion in southern France, to which previously they had targeted each one on its own; with Aragon it gave security, strength, markets for its trade to Catalonia all reaching out towards the Mediterranean, and with Catalonia it ensured an outlet on the Mediterranean to Aragon, removed from the ocean due to its separation from Navarre: so that when the French monarchy pushed back the Catalans and the Aragonese beyond the Pyrenees, they were able to give another direction to their activity and regain with usury what they had lost. During the government of Alfonso VII of León and Castile the direction of the peninsular political life of the Spanish Catholic states was centered in the hands of that king, to the benefit of his monarchy. Renewing the policy of his grandfather Alfonso VI with more success, on the death of Alfonso I of Aragon he occupied Tarazona, Daroca, Calatayud, Zaragoza (1134); and if he then returned this city to Ramiro II (1136) for the intervention of the counts of Urgel and Barcelona interested in preventing Zaragoza from becoming Castilian to free himself the way to Lérida and the Ebro, nevertheless he obtained that Ramón Berenguer IV pay homage; moreover, together with the king of France, the attempts made by the new prince of Aragon to force the monarch of Navarre to return some frontier territories that had been attributed to himself in the separation were in vain; forced Affonso Henriques of Portugal to come to terms, and he saw recognized by all the princes his superiority as emperor of Spain “. But at his death the dispute resumed with great fury and with a rich variety of alliances and wars between the various states, made even more intricate by the continuous conflict between Castile and León. Through long struggles with León, Portugal came to fix its northern border; and, if on the eastern border it could not secure the dominion of Badajoz, more south in 1263 confirmed the possession of the Algarve.

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 7

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 6

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 6

Then the situation cleared up completely between the second half of the twelfth century and the first of the thirteenth. Undoubtedly, in this period there was a new territorial division. On the death of Alfonso I of Aragon (1134), Navarre did not want Ramiro II as sovereign and, having returned independent, it gave itself to García Ramírez (1134-50) nephew of Sancho IV, who was succeeded by his son Sancho VI and Sabio (1150-94) and his nephew ex filio Sancho VII el Fuerte(1194-1234). Alfonso VII of Castile and León in 1157 left his dominions divided between his sons, giving Castile to Sancho III (1157-58), who was succeeded by Alfonso VIII (1158-1214), Henry I (1214-17) and his sister Berenguela, second wife of Alfonso IX of Leon, and Leon to Ferdinand II (1157-88) who was succeeded by Alfonso IX (1188-1230). Finally, taking advantage of the civil struggles that broke out at the time of Urraca and in which he had a notable part, the county of Portugal, located between the Miño and the Duero, which Alfonso VI of León and Castile had already made great strides towards independence. given to his daughter Teresa, married to Henry of Lorraine, and whom their son Affonso Henriques (1128-85) had transformed into a kingdom after winning the Muslims at Ourique (1139); now with Sancho I (1185-1211) and with Alfonso II (1211-1223) the state independence had its definitive confirmation. However, an event of great importance in the history of Spain, with the marriage between Petronila of Aragon and Ramón Berenguer IV of Barcelona in 1137 (date of the marriage promise and abdication of Ramiro II) the Catalan-Aragonese monarchy actually originated; to which, later, during the reigns of Alfonso II (1162-96), Pedro II (1196-1213) and James Iel Conquistador (1213-76), the counties of Roussillon (1172), of Pallás (1198), of Urgel (1230) passed. And then the two crowns of León and Castile joined again, and forever, on the head of Ferdinand III el Santo (1217-52), son of Berenguela of Castile and Alfonso IX of León. Who became king of Castile in 1217 for the abdication of his mother in his favor and after having won the opposition of his father, still aspiring to the throne and in his attempts to conquer aided by a part of the nobility, which was definitively won in 1219; and in 1230, on the death of Alfonso IX, he also received the crown of León, through the renunciation of the heirs designated by the monarch.

According to, as for the war of reconquest, in the early days the Christian advance towards the South was made slower by the offensive of the Almohads and then by the wars that broke out between the various Catholic states and within some of them, and in which they took part. even the Africans. In fact, even the great feat of Almeria carried out by Alfonso VII with the help of troops from Aragon, Catalonia, Urgel, commanded by Ramón Berenguer IV, García Ramírez and the Count of Urgel Ermengol VI el de did not have lasting results. Castella, and with the help of Pisan and Genoese ships: the city was conquered and sacked (1147), but after a few years it fell into the power of the Almohads (1158). Thus, the great conquests made by Portugal during the reign of Affonso Henriques, who had taken possession of Santarem, of Lisbon (1147), of Alcácer (1158), of Évora, of Beja (1159) and had crushed the power of the Muslims of Badajoz, were mostly lost during the government of Sancho I. Alfonso VII of León and Castile had to limit himself to making continuous incursions into Andalusia, very daring, but almost completely ineffective: Cordova, which he occupied twice, returned to the domain of the Almohads; against the latter useless were his agreements with some kingdoms of Taifas; and in vain he besieged Jaén (1151) and Guadix (1152). During the short reign of Sancho III of Castile there was only the opposition in Calatrava to the Muslim attacks by some Cistercian monks, thus starting the military order of Calatrava. And when Alfonso VIII of Castile, having come of age, was able to take over the government of the state and put an end to the civil wars that broke out in the kingdom during his minority, if he managed to conquer Cuenca with the Aragonese rescue (1177), moreover, left to himself by Alfonso IX of León and by Sancho VI of Navarre who had promised him help, and launched an attack too lightly, he was beaten at Alarcos (18 June 1195) and saw Toledo and Cuenca besieged by the Almohads. The reconquest made notable progress only in the eastern regions. Here he conquered Tortosa (1148); then yes he took possession of Lérida (1149), of Fraga, of Mequinenza again, finally of the castle of Ciurana (1153), whose conquest ensured him the dominion of the Sierra de Prades and freed all future Catalonia from Muslim domination. And his son Alfonso II moved against the kingdom of Valencia: he besieged the capital (1171), conquered Rueda, took Teruel, which became the bulwark of Christian resistance against the Muslims of Valencia, reached Guadalaviar and Alfambra, gave to the future Aragon its borders. However, in the first decade of the century. XII to Don Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada, archbishop of Toledo, was able to put Christian principles in agreement; the crusade was banned; and on July 16, 1212 at Las Navas de Tolosa the Almohads were defeated by the Spanish and Portuguese troops commanded by their kings – those of León and Portugal were missing – and aided by foreign contingents who had intervened under the orders of French bishops and princes. Then the war of reconquest was resumed with renewed enthusiasm; and since the state of the Almohads had split up and could profit from the internal strife of the kingdoms that had arisen on its ruins, and furthermore in 1230 the two kingdoms of León and Castile were again subjected to a single ruler, and Navarre he moved away from Spanish political life and generally the wars between the other three peninsular states stopped, the results obtained were of enormous importance. Sancho II of Portugal (1223-48) took up what was lost and pushed forward; and his successor Alfonso III (1248-78) occupied the Algarve and gave the ocean as the southern border to his own monarchy.

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 6

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 5

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 5

According to, they were the first great Christian conquests. And the passions of Spanish Catholics – in whose formation religious propaganda had hybridly collaborated, the continuous wars, the eagerness to achieve a well-being that their poor homeland denied them, the spirit of adventure, especially, which had induced them and induced them to fight even among the ranks of the Mohammedans – they were exalted by the richness of the booty, by the spectacle of the marvelous fruits of the Andalusian civilization, which in the raids appeared to the astonished eyes of the conquerors and warmed their hopes and increased their desiresî, by brilliant successes that gave them clear awareness of their value and destroyed the myth of Arab military superiority. At that time, in fact, Catholic Spain had its own champion in Rodrigo Díazel Cid, soldier of Alfonso VI of Castile, then defender of the ruler of Zaragoza and his ally of Valenza, finally the real lord of this city. He, a mixture of ferocious and unscrupulous adventurer and magnificent leader, while fighting for his personal interests, did much in favor of Christianity, with his extraordinary deeds he brightly proved that the Spaniards were capable of winning victory over the Arabs and ruling them, yes that “for the firmness of his character and for his heroic valor” even by the Arabs, who were terrified of him, he was called “one of the greatest miracles of the Lord”; he obtained the recognition of his work from the Christian monarchs, who were related to him and placed him on their own level.

But in recent years, through the same complex of struggles which, as we have seen, intertwine with the conquest campaigns, contribute to the formation of new states, they give the life of Spain a marked unity of direction and political methods and therefore the its peculiar character, the various Christian states – which arose from the earlier more minute fragmentation of the Catholic country and animated by the same passions of their subjects – set out to give themselves a reason for living, to fix their own future, to suffer what was imposed on them. The struggle burned between Castile, Navarre, Aragon; and then, when Navarre and Aragon had a single sovereign, the Aragonese monarch persevered in the fight against Castile with united forces, finally, the counts of Barcelona, ​​Urgel and Pallás also took part in the conflicts.el Mayor(because Fernando I had conquered his brother and occupied part of his kingdom, to then fall back before the coalition of Sancho IV with Ramiro I), and some of them in fact autonomous; on the contrary, it is to be believed that Navarre at the death of Sancho IV also gave itself to the Aragonese to receive help against Alfonso VI, who had taken possession of the Rioja. And it was a question of sharing the possession of the great roads of the South, towards which the Christian states were now anxiously pointing, which amounted to determining the respective areas of influence in the Muslim territories and to fix in advance the future borders of the various monarchies – to avoid d ‘ being cut off in the reconquest of the country and thus losing the possibility of further expansion. Indeed, Alfonso VI of León and Castile already besieged Zaragoza, when he had to interrupt the operations for the invasion of the Almoravids, and then tried to oppose the Aragonese advance by supporting the Muslims of Huesca in their resistance against Peter I. Instead Zaragoza fell into the hands of Alfonso I, when Castile, during the government of Urraca, was drawn into civil strife; and indeed the Aragonese in the last years of his life with the possession of Mequinenza advanced towards the banks of the Segre and the lower course of the Ebro. However, if, as in the past, Alfonso I saw the counts of Urgel and Pallás leaning towards his monarchy, on the road to Lérida, a very important road junction, he found himself up against Ramón Berenguer III. Thus, the interests of the major monarchies were clearly clarified in the first half of the century. XII blatantly failed the dream of Alfonso VI who, giving his daughter Urraca in marriage to Alfonso I, he had thought of uniting the three royal crowns of Christian Spain, and the separation between the respective states became deeper: after years of chaotic conflicts, in which all ties and anarchy took over in a confused jumble of revolts and wars, Alfonso I gave up the fight in disgust; and, conversely, on his death, during the reign of his brother Ramiro IIel Monje(1134-37), the Aragonese nobility opposed a marriage between his daughter and heir Petronila with the eldest son of the king of León and Castile. Moreover, in the same years, taking advantage of the conditions of southern France, a profound work of political expansion in the lands beyond the Pyrenees began Alfonso I and the counts of Barcelona: which was, at least, a clear demonstration of the independence of that part. of Spain from the Capetian monarchy, heir to the rights of the Carolingian, which had already dominated it. The first in 1116 welcomed the count of Toulouse as a vassal, in 1122 he went to Gascony to receive the vassalage of the count of Bigorra and to help him, and in 1130 he sided in favor of Gastone de Bearne and besieged and conquered Bajona, so that the Gaul already gota submitted to his dominion; seconds, Ramón Berenguer I for his marriages with princesses of the South of France ended up being engaged in the local feudal struggles, and Ramón Berenguer III, marrying Dolce di Provence in third marriage, acquired the right to succeed her in this county, which he occupied in part after a few years of struggle with the count of Toulouse (1125) and which he then left to his son Berenguer Ramón, while the eldest son Ramón Berenguer IV became count of Barcelona. Finally Ramón Berenguer III himself began to turn his attention to the sea; it was in relations with the Italian maritime republics; he participated in a crusade promoted by Pisa (1114) against the Balearics, and, if this latter undertaking was of little immediate use, since it was only possible to reduce piracy, it was nevertheless the first manifestation of the nascent maritime power of the Catalan state:Liber maiolichinus.

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 5

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 4

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 4

At the same time great progress was made towards Catalan unity: and even in Barcelona fratricide bloodied the count’s throne if, as it seems, Ramón Berenguer II was killed by his brother Berenguer Ramón II, sons and heirs of Ramón Berenguer I, who had left to them their own domains. With this count (1035-76), son of Berenguer Ramón I el Corbat (el Curvo, 1018-35), the county of Barcelona placed itself at the head of the various counties of the region: the brothers gave up the paternal inheritance in his favor and some accounts entered into agreements with him or declared themselves his vassals. Then, Ramón Berenguer III el Gran (el Grande, 1096-1131) obtained the counties of Besalú (1111) and Cerdaña (1117); so that, at his death, only the counties of Urgel, Roussillon and Ampurias, of Pallás remained independent.

According to, the formation of these vast political organisms, as well as the means employed to achieve it, and, in contrast, the contemporary splitting of Muslim Spain facilitated and hastened the Christian reconquest. Indeed, the “kingdoms of Taifas” by their weakness were in themselves incapable of supporting the reinforced Catholic offensive; and, on the other hand, by siding with this or that prince in their struggles, thus increasing the matter of the dispute and justifying at least part of the expeditions made by Christian monarchs against them as allies of their adversaries, they made the conquest of their opponents easier. territories. Ferdinand I of León and Castile took possession of Viseo, Lamego (1057), Coimbra (1064), brought the frontier from Duero to Mondego, won the king of Valenza, he made tributaries the king of Zaragoza (from whom he took away the fortresses south of the Duero) and the kings of Toledo, Badajoz, Seville (1063), and in a raid he went as far as the vicinity of this city. His son Alfonso VI returned to invade the kingdom of Seville, which had supported García of Galicia, reaching as far as Tarifa (1082); with the occupation of Toledo (1085) it reached the Tagus and was able to consolidate the previous conquests between the Duero and this river, populating or seizing numerous cities, such as Salamanca, Ávila, Medina, Segovia, Talavera, Madrid, Uceda, Guadalajara, Mora, Alarcón, Uclés, Cuenca; he took possession of the castle of Aledo, near Lorca, which allowed him to dominate the kingdom of Almeria; besieged Zaragoza; he forced the monarch of Seville to give him the territories belonging to the kingdom of Toledo and usurped by him; he gave Valenza to his ancient ally in the struggles against Sancho, the former ruler of Toledo, who had been thrown from the throne by a revolution before the occupation of the city by the Castilians. In the same years Aragon also moved: Sancho Ramírez, fighting against the Muslims of Lérida, Tortosa, Huesca, with the help of the Count of Urgel, took possession of Barbastro (1065), conquered Graus (1083) and Monzón (1089), besieged Huesca, under whose walls he was mortally wounded. Finally, the count of Barcelona also took up arms: Ramón Berenguer I took some lands from the kingdom of Zaragoza and reached the Segre in Camarasa (1060) and in 1091 Berenguer Ramón II occupation of the city by the Castilians. In the same years Aragon also moved: Sancho Ramírez, fighting against the Muslims of Lérida, Tortosa, Huesca, with the help of the Count of Urgel, took possession of Barbastro (1065), conquered Graus (1083) and Monzón (1089), besieged Huesca, under whose walls he was mortally wounded. Finally, the count of Barcelona also took up arms: Ramón Berenguer I took some lands from the kingdom of Zaragoza and reached the Segre in Camarasa (1060) and in 1091 Berenguer Ramón II occupation of the city by the Castilians. In the same years Aragon also moved: Sancho Ramírez, fighting against the Muslims of Lérida, Tortosa, Huesca, with the help of the Count of Urgel, took possession of Barbastro (1065), conquered Graus (1083) and Monzón (1089), besieged Huesca, under whose walls he was mortally wounded. Finally, the count of Barcelona also took up arms: Ramón Berenguer I took some lands from the kingdom of Zaragoza and reached the Segre in Camarasa (1060) and in 1091 Berenguer Ramón IIel Fratricida(1076-97) conquered Tarragona. In this way it was also possible to resist the Almoravid offensive, which, indeed, at a later time, some sovereigns did not prevent them from progressing towards the south. Alfonso VI was defeated in Zalhaca (October 1086), but for several years he was able to keep most of his advanced positions, he returned to ally himself with the rulers of Granata, Seville, Badajoz, from the latter he obtained the sale of Santarém, Cintra, Lisbon (1093).

And if he was beaten at Uclés (1108), where his only son fell and where the Almoravids consolidated their power over almost all of Muslim Spain, and if on his death (1109), during the government of his daughter and heir Urraca (1109-26), the state was overwhelmed in very serious disputes; however, then the defense of the Leonese-Castilian monarchy was assumed directly and indirectly by Alfonso I of Aragon, husband of Urraca and fighting with her; Toledo still remained Christian, and the offensive was then resumed with ardor by his nephewex filiaof Alfonso VI, Alfonso VII (1126-57). At the same time, Peter I of Aragon defeated the troops of Saragossa in Alcoraz, rushed to the aid of Huesca and took possession of this city (1096), subjected Barbastro to his own dominion (1101); and his son Alfonso I, although distracted by the struggle he had to endure with his wife Urraca of Castile, won the ruler of Zaragoza in Valtierra, who fell in the battle; took Tudela (1114); after four years of siege he had Zaragoza, which in 1110 had fallen into the hands of the Almoravids (1118); in Cutanda he defeated the latter, rushed to regain the lost (1120); between 1120 and 1121 he occupied Magallón, Borja, Tarazona, Calatayud, Bubierca, Ariza, Daroca, Monreal del Campo; and took Mequinenza in the fight against the Muslims of Lérida and Fraga: a fight which, moreover, was not entirely lucky for him, because he was unable to overcome the opposition of the Count of Barcelona, ​​who desired Lérida for himself, and the resistance of Valenza de Murcia and Cordova, who intervened to defend their independence in the city. Finally, in the same years, Ramón Berenguer III with the help of the Count of Urgel conquered Balanguer, he initiated a crusade against the Muslims, which gave him the dominion of Valence for a short time; and, even if it was won by them (1124), nevertheless it was able to resist the incursions of the Almoravids, who came to threaten Barcelona. also in the same years, Ramón Berenguer III with the help of the count of Urgel conquered Balanguer, he initiated a crusade against the Muslims, which gave him the dominion of Valenza for a short time; and, even if it was won by them (1124), nevertheless it was able to resist the incursions of the Almoravids, who came to threaten Barcelona. also in the same years, Ramón Berenguer III with the help of the count of Urgel conquered Balanguer, he initiated a crusade against the Muslims, which gave him the dominion of Valenza for a short time; and, even if it was won by them (1124), nevertheless it was able to resist the incursions of the Almoravids, who came to threaten Barcelona.

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 4

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 3

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 3

Later, in the century. XI these states managed to overcome the Muslim reaction directed by ‛Abd ar-Raḥmān III and by al-Manṣūr, even if they were forced to recognize the supremacy of the caliph. Indeed, Sancho I of Navarre (905-25), won at Valdenjunquera together with Ordoño II (920) and pursued as far as Pamplona, ​​which was sacked and partly destroyed (924), managed to push on Nájera and Tudela. occupy Viguera, and with the help of León and Castile, perhaps, even to win just before dying. And then his state, strengthened with the annexation of Aragon – which Endregodo Galíndez, daughter of Count Galindo Aznáres, brought as a dowry to her husband, King García Sánchez (925-70) – during the reign of this sovereign and his mother and guardian, Queen Tota, he saw his troops fighting in Simancas alongside those of Ramiro II of León, he actively participated in the civil wars that broke out in León and shared the policy of Sancho I of León towards al-Manṣūr. At the same time, although at the death of Guifre I the unity of his state, divided between his sons, was broken and al-Manṣūr came to conquer Barcelona (985), nevertheless Borrell II, count of Barcelona, ​​Ausona and Gerona (died in 992), he managed to retake the city with his own strength – and then he refused to make an act of vassalage to the Capetians, who had put this condition to help him – and his son Ramón Borrell (992-1018) took part in the Christian incursion, which he reached as far as Cordova (1010). he actively participated in the civil wars that broke out in León and shared the policy of Sancho I of León towards al-Manṣūr. At the same time, although at the death of Guifre I the unity of his state, divided between his sons, was broken and al-Manṣūr came to conquer Barcelona (985), nevertheless Borrell II, count of Barcelona, ​​Ausona and Gerona (died in 992), he managed to retake the city with his own strength – and then he refused to make an act of vassalage to the Capetians, who had put this condition to help him – and his son Ramón Borrell (992-1018) took part in the Christian incursion, which he reached as far as Cordova (1010). he actively participated in the civil wars that broke out in León and shared the policy of Sancho I of León towards al-Manṣūr. At the same time, although at the death of Guifre I the unity of his state, divided between his sons, was broken and al-Manṣūr came to conquer Barcelona (985), nevertheless Borrell II, count of Barcelona, ​​Ausona and Gerona (died in 992), he managed to retake the city with his own strength – and then he refused to make an act of vassalage to the Capetians, who had put this condition to help him – and his son Ramón Borrell (992-1018) took part in the Christian incursion, which he reached as far as Cordova (1010).

According to, the formation of the great Christian monarchies. – A first grouping of these states occurred in the first half of the century. XI: it was made possible precisely by those old and new kinship of their sovereigns and by that commonality of interests, to which we have mentioned, and was facilitated by the particular conditions of Muslim Spain, which, on the other hand, was divided into the “kingdoms of Taifas “, and, torn by deep internal struggles, it could no longer control the progress of the Christian monarchies. Indeed, to the inherited possessions (Navarre and Aragon) Sancho III of Navarre el Mayor(about 1000-35) between 1015 and 1025 he added a large part of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza by right of succession or conquest; he also strengthened his authority over the Cantabria already occupied by his grandfather; as husband of the daughter of Sancho García of Castile, on the death without male descent of his brother-in-law García Sánchez (1028) he took possession of his county; exploiting the tragic end of Alfonso V el Nobleof León (999-1027), which fell during the siege of Viseo, and the weakness of his heir Bermudo III (1027-37), occupied the part between the Pisuerga and the Cea of ​​the kingdom of León. Finally, fearful of his power, other princes also had to recognize his sovereignty: it is certain that he assumed the titles of king of Pamplona, ​​Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorza, Castile, Ávila, León, Asturias, Astorga, Pallás, even of Gascogne. and Barcelona. Now, undoubtedly, this unity lasted a few years, because, at his death, Sancho divided the state among his sons, and left Navarre with the city of Nájera, Guipúzcoa and Vizcaya to the eldest son García; Castile and the aforementioned part of the kingdom of León, all elevated to a kingdom, to Ferdinand; Sobrarbe and Ribagorza to the youngest son Gonzalo, and Aragon, again promoted to kingdom,el Magno(1035-65) divided his state among his sons and assigned Castile to Sancho II (1065-72), León to Alfonso VI (1065-1109), Galicia to García, the lordship of Zamora to Urraca, that of Toro to Elvira. However, the movement then started, despite some stops and some retreats, continued in the following years, through an intricate succession of complex disputes, in which no means were spared: not the fratricidal struggle, because García of Navarre died in the battle of Atapuerca, near Burgos, in 1054 fighting against his brother Ferdinando; not the alliance with Muslim princes, since, for example, García himself in his war against Ferdinand I made use of Mohammedans; Alfonso VI and García of Galicia appealed for aid to the rulers of Toledo and Seville respectively in their dispute with Sancho II, and García of the same previous ally in that against Alfonso VI. Fernando I as the husband of the sister of Bermudo III of León, was able to occupy the still independent part of this kingdom, when Bermudo fell in the battle of Támara (Palencia) in 1037, in a vain attempt to regain the territories of his state which were in the dominion of the brother in law; and the unity of his Leonese-Castilian monarchy was reconstituted by Alfonso VI, when Sancho II was killed at the siege of Zamora, who had already defeated his brothers and was about to submit to his authority all the dominions of his father, and when the fate of arms turned unfavorable to García of Galicia, who rushed in vain to uphold his rights. Furthermore, Ramiro I of Aragon (1035-1063) took possession of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza; his son Sancho Ramírez (1063-94) also became king of Navarre, when Sancho IV (1054-76), successor of García of Navarra (1035-54), was killed in Peñalén by his bastard brother; and the two crowns remained on the heads of the kings of Aragon Pedro I (1094-1104) and Alfonso Iel Batallador (1104-34).

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 3

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 2

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 2

The origins of the states that arose in the regions located along the Pyrenees are very uncertain: Navarre, Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorza, Pallás, Urgel, Cerdaña, Catalan territories. As we said, in the central area the Muslims did not touch or at least did not permanently occupy the town located north of Alquézar (Sobrarbe), Roda (Ribagorza), Ager (Pallás), and perhaps the upper Urgel and the Cerdaña; territories of transit for the expeditions to Gaul were, on the one hand, Navarre, where it seems that Pamplona was the domain of Mūsà and then of ‛Oqba, and, on the other, the Catalan territories, between Lérida and Barcelona, ​​where the Arabs took possession of Barcelona around 718. Now, in these regions, for centuries, local autonomist tendencies existed: very marked especially in the Basque provinces, whose residents had been in constant struggle with the Gothic monarchy and in their incursions they had come down to the valley, towards Zaragoza; made more tenuous elsewhere by previous dominations, but ready to rise again. And these had to find nourishment in the changes brought about in the political situation of the country by the Arab invasion, and were strengthened both in the occupied territories closest to the Pyrenees, where even the Visigoths who became Muslims aspired to become independent from the emirs, as in the territories left free and abandoned to themselves. Then, in this territorial division and in the initial scarce differentiation between Christians and Muslims, to give spiritual depth and some political unity to the opposition of Christians against the Mohammedans and to the disputes that broke out within the emir’s northern dominions, intervened: religious propaganda promoted by monasteries, sanctuaries and bishoprics – such as San Salvador de Leyre (Navarra), San Juan de la Peña (Aragon), San Victorián (Sobrarbe), Ovarra and Roda (Ribagorza), Ager and Aláon (Pallás), the bishopric of Urgel – and the Carolingian conquest, which put Franks and Spaniards in direct contact, opened a new field of action to the former, began to give a precise direction to the political life of the latter, both Christians and Muslim neophytes of the plain, which, in order to become independent, began to navigate between Muslims and Catholics. It was then that the Christians of the Pyrenees most likely submitted to princes who came from overseas or recognized the supremacy of Toulouse. And in 778 the first expedition of Charlemagne, who, accepting the invitation of Zaragoza, Lérida and Barcelona, he passed the Pyrenees and conquered Pamplona, ​​Huesca and Gerona, but was defeated at Roncesvalles by the Basques; of 785 the second, which gave him possession of Gerona, the first nucleus of thatMarca Hispanica, which in 801 had Barcelona as its capital, then reconquered to Christianity. Thus, in the early years of the century. IX the border line between the Catholic world and the Muslim had at the extreme points, on the one hand, this “Marca”, which came to include the counties of Gerona, Ausona (Vich), Ampurias, Barcelona, ​​etc., and that in 817 together with the Septimania formed the marquisate of Gotia ; and, on the other hand, a state of Navarre, or rather Pamplona, ​​perhaps created as the Marca Hispanicaand ruled by elements from the regions beyond the Pyrenees, and perhaps also partly dominated by the Asturian kings and the counts of Castile. And in the central area this border passed through Uncastillo, Sarsamarcuello, Loarre, Alquézar, Roda, Ager, and limited the small states of Aragon, including the high valley of the river of the same name, Ribagorza, Pallás, Urgel, Cerdaña, perhaps Sobrarbe, generally counties belonging to the Duchy of Toulouse.

According to, the political events of these small states were closely linked to those of the Carolingian Empire. The weakening of central power in the Frankish state led, here as elsewhere, to a rupture of the previous relations of dependence; and now that the Muslim danger had subsided, the detachment was sharpened by the resurgence of the ancient passions of the individual regions, autonomous like the Basque provinces, opposed to a Frankish domination, like the Catalans, who at the time of the Visigoths had always been in arms against the Merovingians. Almost contemporary was the rise of organizations that soon became independent from the Frankish state and began to live a common life, together with the Asturian monarchy and the county of Castile: participating in the struggle against Muslims, intervening reciprocally in their own civil struggles, binding themselves with each other with close kinship ties between the princes. In the first half of the century. IX in Navarre there was an Iñigo Arista as king of Pamplona; and Count of Aragon, in Jaca, became an Aznar Galindo. In the second half of the same century also Ribagorza and Pallás, Ampurias and Roussillon had their own accounts; and became independent Guifreel Pilós (Vifredo el Velloso), Count of Barcelona, ​​Urgel, Cerdaña, Gerona, Besalú, Conflent, Ausona.

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 2

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 1

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 1

The state of which we have the most information and which, at least according to tradition, was the first to arise, is the Asturian, born in Oviedo’s Asturias and commonly regarded as a restoration of the Visigothic monarchy. Its first organizer and king would have been the Visigoth Pelayo, a noble already persecuted by Witiza and then protected by Rodrigo, who, sheltered in the mountains of Cangas de Onís, defeated the Muslim troops in Covadonga between 721 and 725, in a clash., without a doubt, of a short time – one of the many mountain ambushes that must have taken place in that alpine area at the time – but which legend transformed, like the winning hero, into a real symbol.

According to, the territorial expansions began with Alfonso I (739-57), when the Berbers abandoned the north of the peninsula and fell back on Coimbra and Coria: then Galicia, Liébana, Bardulia, perhaps the city of León, were occupied or conquered; daring raids were carried out in the surrounding territories; and only due to the impossibility of presiding over and populating it was the vast almost desert area which now separated the new Christian dominions from the Muslim ones not permanently occupied. Then, an arrest in the reconquest march led, on the one hand, to a series of civil wars between monarch and nobility and, on the other, the strengthening of the Arab state by ‛Abd ar-Raḥmān. However, the war was resumed with renewed ardor by Alfonso II the impossibility of garrisoning it and populating it, the vast, almost desert area that now separated the new Christian dominions from the Muslim ones was not permanently occupied. Then, an arrest in the reconquest march led, on the one hand, to a series of civil wars between monarch and nobility and, on the other, the strengthening of the Arab state by ‛Abd ar-Raḥmān. However, the war was resumed with renewed ardor by Alfonso II the impossibility of garrisoning it and populating it, the vast, almost desert area that now separated the new Christian dominions from the Muslim ones was not permanently occupied. Then, an arrest in the reconquest march led, on the one hand, to a series of civil wars between monarch and nobility and, on the other, the strengthening of the Arab state by ‛Abd ar-Raḥmān. However, the war was resumed with renewed ardor by Alfonso IIel Casto (791-842), who in his raids not only reached the Tagus, but also brought his court further south, in Oviedo; he was in relations with Charlemagne; with the help of Aquitaine he managed to curb the impetus of the Muslims who, if they came to occupy Oviedo, were unable or unwilling to keep their conquests and suffered various defeats, such as the disastrous one of Lutos (794); finally, in his expeditions he freed many Mozarabs, with whom he began the repopulation of the country, which was essential to advance the conquest. And later the resistance to Arab attacks, to which the Norman raids on the coasts were added, and the policy of repopulation continued during their reigns Ramiro I (842-50) and especially Ordoño I (850-66) and Alfonso III el Magno(866-910): because, if the Christian state was again shaken by dynastic struggles and by the revolt of the Galicians, who had risen against the Asturians, nevertheless its sovereigns were able to compensate for their weakness with that of the enemy, who too had become the prey of serious upheavals. Thus, the southern frontier, carried on the Duero, was defended with the construction of the fortresses of Zamora, Simancas, San Esteban de Gormaz and Osma, which formed a robust line; the eastern one was protected from the assaults of Mūsà of Zaragoza with a daring expedition that reached Albelda and led to the victory of Clavijo (860), and from Muslim raids, in general, with a series of castles, which then gave the region its name of Castile. Within these borders León (856), Astorga, Túy, Amaya (860), Oporto, Braga, Viseo, Lamego, perhaps Burgos (882-84); beyond, the zone of influence reached Coimbra, Salamanca, Toledo; the capital was carried further south, to León.

Then, to the vigorous Muslim counteroffensive led by ‛Abd ar-Raḥmān III, who in his raids came to take Burgos, Ordoño II (914-24), who in a raid plundered the territories of Mérida, opposed valid resistance, but was not always lucky, because, having won the caliph in San Esteban de Gormaz (917), he was defeated in the clash of Valdejunquera (920); and especially Ramiro II (931-51), who defeated the Muslims in the battle of Simancas (939), the first of European resonance, and was able to repopulate the region bathed by the Tormes. The situation changed in the following years. Already during the last days of the reign of Ramiro II the separatist revolt that broke out in the county of Castile under the direction of Fernán Gonzáles (circa 923-circa 970), the hero of Castilian legend and poetry, had assumed serious proportions, and supported by ‛ Abd ar-Raḥmàn III; and moreover it had allowed the latter to take possession of Medinaceli (Soria), the key to the state. During the reigns of Ordoño III (951-56), of Sancho Iel Craso (956-66), of Ordoño IV (958), the monarchy fell prey to dynastic and civil struggles, in which the Castilian count played a large part, who then became completely independent; and anarchy grew under Ramiro III (966-82) and Bermudo II el Gotoso(982-99), when, following the example of the Castilian one, the other counts also tried to become autonomous from the sovereign, the Normans renewed their attacks, and al-Manṣūr, called to his aid by Bermudo and became the true ruler of the state, to the attempts made by the monarch to free himself from his tyranny, he responded by putting the whole country to fire and sword and destroying Santiago de Compostela, which had risen around the tomb of the Apostle, already discovered at the time of Alfonso II and become the destination of ‘impressive pilgrimages. However, even in such tragic years the state managed to save itself from destruction, and thanks to ‛Abd ar-Raḥmān and al-Mansūr, who intervened in the disputes ensuring the triumph of this or that opponent, and limited themselves to making vassals the monarchs and reduce their dominions. Particularly characteristic is what happened to Sancho I, who had a doctor from ‛Abd ar-Raḥmān who took care of his health and was supported by him against the aspirations to the throne of Ordoño III; then it seems that he went to Cordoba together with the queen of Navarre, his grandmother.

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 1

Mexico in the 1930’s

Mexico in the 1930’s

With the assumption of General Lázaro Cárdenas as President of the Republic on 30 November 1934, the United States of Mexico entered a new phase of its history. And this is because even though the Cárdenas came to power as an exponent of the national revolutionary party, behind which was General Plutarco Elías Calles (who was president of the republic from 1924 to 1928 and the arbiter of Mexican political life from 1928 to 1934, during the provisional presidencies of Emilio Portes Gil, P. Ortiz Rubio and Abelardo Rodríguez), he then definitively cut off the system of political corruption and personal favoritism that Calles had set up; and consequently began a policy that in its essential lines detaches itself from the easy opportunism that Calles, especially in recent years, he had preferred. And it is particularly interesting to note that this upheaval took place within the framework of the old political organization, within the program of the national revolutionary party itself. Especially the Cárdenas brought forward the realization of the Plan Sexennal del Partido Nacional Revolucionario according to the lines conceived prior to his rise to power, as the six-year plan constituted the social economic program of the aforementioned party for the presidential legislation from 1934 to 1940, which was to aim at the realization of the ” grandeza económica de Mexico bajo el amparo de la justicia social “.

The ideology of this party is clearly characterized in its outward features by its kinship with an approximate and second-hand Marxist preaching (which explains the reddening attitudes of Mexican politics in recent years) while in practice it pursues a policy of strict national regeneration, to strongly nationalist and autarchic tints. This party has an important function in the life of the Mexican state, since, at present, Mexico stands by its constitutional physiognomy within the framework of one-party states, and, in short, the position of the Mexican national revolutionary party is configured the same. for his attributions to that of the National Fascist Party in Italy and the National Socialist Party in Germany.

The Cárdenas before his election, in accordance with the directives of the party, advocated the promotion of nationalism, political democracy, agrarian reform, popular education and the limitation of the powers of the Church. During the administration of the Cárdenas these trends did not remain a dead letter and led to quite radical transformations of Mexican economic and social life, so much so that they characterize the current position of Mexican politics and its development tendencies quite precisely.

The sector in which the Cárdenas acted most decisively and in which he brought the greatest changes was the agricultural sector, with the continuation of the agrarian reform.

Which finds its legislative basis in the constitution of 1917, which contains precise provisions for the division of the large estates into small properties of the direct farmer or for the establishment of ejidos, that is, of the collective properties of the village. By the end of 1934, 8,197,023 hectares of land had been distributed to peasant communities and 806,058 heads of families had benefited from it. At that time it was estimated that 1,200,000 rural household heads still had to benefit from the provision of the law, so that what had been done appeared very little to what remained to be done. Consequently, according to the party’s electoral promises, the Cárdenas continued the agrarian reform, instead of the system of direct distribution of the land to the peasants, it followed the system of the ejido, which differs substantially from that of small properties. In fact the title of ownership of the ejido it does not belong to the farmer household but to the village on which he depends and the land is inalienable. The fertile portion of the village’s land is divided into small, roughly equal plots, which are allotted to all the working agricultural household heads, who are called the ejidatarios. L ‘ ejidatario he has the right to keep his lot during his natural life and to pass it on to the heirs upon his death, but he loses all rights to it when he abandons its cultivation for two consecutive years. He has no right to take out mortgages or to transfer possession of them in any way. Between 1935 and 1936 6,334,266 hectares of land were distributed to 412,798 heads of households, that is, in two years the Cárdenas regime distributed three quarters of land than had been distributed in twenty years by previous governments. Parallel to this work of social transformation (which continued to a greater extent in 1937) the government undertook the construction of large public land reclamation works, especially for the diffusion of irrigation systems: in fact, in recent years 37 artificial lakes, including the large El Palmito dam, for the irrigation of 250,000 hectares of grain land. And in order to facilitate the successful implementation of the great reform undertaken, the government has stimulated the formation of agricultural production and consumption cooperatives and has helped the formation of an adequate agricultural credit system. The Agricultural Credit Bank, which has been transformed within the lines of the new social trends, and the National Credit Bank of ejidos, which due to its complex organization should be able to fulfill the function of anticipating the necessary means of sustenance to the ejidatarios before the harvest.

In the other sectors of the economy, the government of Cárdenas favors the formation of a state socialism. It has created the necessary legislative bases for this purpose.

For example, the law on expropriations that went back to 1857 was radically changed; with the law of 23 November 1936 instead of talking about the reason of “public necessity” for the justification of expropriation, a much broader formula was adopted which recognizes the reason for expropriation in the consideration of the reason for “public and social welfare”. It was under the provisions of this new law that on 23 June 1937 a presidential decree ordered the nationalization of the railways. And, again in June 1937, another presidential decree laid the foundations for government regulation of the production, distribution and sale of agricultural and industrial products.

But the meeting point of the social and nationalist political needs of the Cárdenas regime can be seen in its attitude towards foreign oil companies. The nationalization of oil mines is provided for by art. 27 of the 1917 constitution, but the realization of this cornerstone of the fundamental law of the state has been postponed due to the pressure of the foreign states concerned, in particular that of the United States. And it was precisely as a result of the pressure of the United States ambassador that a law of 1925, which, in order to get closer to the implementation of that postulate, set the limit of 50 years on oil concessions, was repealed by a law of Calles of 1928. In the November 1937 some facilities of the Cárdenas to the Mexican Eagle Company presumed a more liberal orientation of his government towards foreign oil companies, and indeed on that occasion the Cárdenas declared that he would use the higher revenues from the oil concessions for the rapid implementation of the national economic reconstruction program. Therefore, the news arrived rather unexpectedly that with a measure of March 19, 1938, the Cárdenas had decided to expropriate the companies that owned oil fields.

The reason for the expropriation was considered the refusal of the oil companies to submit to the decisions of the Junta de Conciliación y de Arbitrage which, regarding a dispute between the employees of this industry and the concessionary companies, had issued a sentence that condemned the companies to pay the arrears., to adopt a 40-hour weekly schedule and other provisions in favor of workers. The expropriation decree establishes the companies’ right to compensation which will be paid to them in 10 years.

Mexico in the 1930's

Svalbard Travel: Arctic Adventures North of the Arctic Circle

Svalbard Travel: Arctic Adventures North of the Arctic Circle

Endless expanses, lonely silence and untouched nature as far as the eye can see. Welcome to Svalbard! In the far north of Europe, surrounded by icy and stormy northern seas, lies the Norwegian archipelago of Spitsbergen. There are few people living there, because Svalbard is mainly a destination for researchers or adventurers – people like you who like to travel .

Glaciers, fjords and polar bears

When you travel to the Arctic, you think of walruses and especially polar bears, but also of memorable landscapes, massive glaciers and great fjords. While you need a bit of luck to actually spot a polar bear, in Svalbard you can look forward to beautiful encounters with whales, reindeer, arctic foxes and a very selective bird world – all species that live in the icy climes of northern Europe. Our Spitsbergen trips are designed for nature lovers and adventurers: people who like to observe animals and enjoy unique natural spectacles.

Travel information in brief

Travel time

The climate is arctic and cool to cold all year round. The coast is only free of snow for about six weeks in summer. In June the days are usually sunny and temperatures usually fluctuate between -5 ° C and + 5 ° C. After booking, we will send you a detailed packing list and further information about the trip so that you know which equipment you should take with you.

Currency / money

In Norway, the Norwegian krone (NOK) is the unit of currency. One Norwegian krone is equal to 100 Øre. International credit cards are accepted almost everywhere. At the ATMs you can usually withdraw cash with an EC card and PIN number. We recommend that you withdraw cash in euros, US dollars or Danish kroner.


No special vaccinations are required. Nevertheless, we recommend checking the three standard vaccinations polio, diphtheria and tetanus. On a trip to Svalbard there can be rough seas. You should therefore bring seasickness tablets with you. On our trips so far, there was no case of severe seasickness, the sea was often as smooth as a mirror.

Visa / entry

An identity card is sufficient for German citizens to enter Norway and is valid for at least six months upon departure.

On the trail of polar bears and arctic foxes

Svalbard is one of the last untouched areas on earth. The archipelago in the far north of Europe belongs to Norway and is considered to be one of the northernmost inhabited areas on earth. Although Svalbard has a few and permanent residents, the islands are primarily determined by the Arctic flora and fauna. We would like to show you exactly this world on nature trips to Svalbard.

On land you can watch reindeer, polar bears and arctic foxes in Svalbard – an unforgettable experience to see the large land mammals in the wild! Since we live on a ship on our Svalbard trip and explore the country in this way, we will also see the many marine mammals that are in the arctic seas.

In the recent past there have been increasing voices that it would be better to leave the animals alone and not travel to Svalbard anymore. In our opinion, this is the wrong approach. Without nature travelers, Svalbard would be left to the interests of the coal and oil industries. The protection of whales and other animals is our top priority. If we see a polar bear from the ship, we do not disembark, but observe the animal from a distance and therefore do not approach it. If there is no polar bear in sight, a team of guides and crew goes ashore to check the safety of the guests. Only when the area has been carefully controlled, the travelers are allowed to go ashore. Safety is a top priority.

Svalbard Travel

Attractions in Jökulsárlón, Iceland

Attractions in Jökulsárlón, Iceland

Jökulsarlon, Iceland: Jökulsarlon glacier lagoon

Iceland is famous for its breathtaking landscapes and many natural attractions. Anyone traveling in the south-east of the island state should definitely make a trip to the Jökulsarlon glacier lagoon in the south-west of the country. This is located directly on Ringstrasse 1, one of the most important transport links in the region.

The 18 square kilometer glacial lake, which was only formed about 80 years ago and continues to expand, is the deepest lake in Iceland with a depth of 248 meters. The lagoon also has direct access to the Atlantic Ocean via the Jökulsá River, which is crossed by a large bridge. The Jökulsarlon is mainly fed by the meltwater from the Vatnajökull. The largest glacier in Europe towers over the entire lagoon and can be seen from afar. The glacier lagoon attracts hundreds of thousands of tourists from all over the world every year, especially in summer. Extensive boat tours are also offered here.

Breathtaking landscape: floating icebergs and glacier canyons

Countless floating icebergs on the huge lake offer an extremely spectacular sight. Guided hikes and tours over the glacier are also very popular. If you want to explore the lagoon extensively, you should take at least one day. Numerous rare birds have also settled in the lagoon in recent years. With a little luck you can even see seals in their natural habitat here. Due to its breathtaking view, the Jökulsarlon glacier lagoon is often used as a backdrop for films. Among other things, the famous James Bond films “In the face of death” and “Die another day” were filmed here.

Attractions in Jökulsárlón, Iceland

Sightseeing in Oman

Sightseeing in Oman

If you choose Oman as your travel destination, you go to the sultanate in the east of the Arabian Peninsula… and to an area that developed into a modern state within a few decades, but was able to preserve old traditions and thus its Arab identity. The landscape of Oman is particularly worth seeing in the narrow, fertile coastal strip of Al-Batina on the Gulf of Oman, which is separated from the desert by the Oman Mountains, which occupies most of the country. In addition to Dhiddat al-Harasis in the interior of the country, there is also the edge of the Rub al-Chali desert in the southwest. Accordingly, the climate is dry and hot, and the temperatures around the turn of the year are best suited to set out on a tour of discovery through the Sultanate. The ruins of the 7th century are particularly interesting from a cultural point of view. 000 year old city Urbar or the ruins of Qualhat, and Nizwa, the religious center of the country, where you can admire the Sultan Qaboos Mosque with its blue and gold dome as well as the monumental fortress from the 17th century In turn, you have a wide view of the city. The capital Masquat is particularly worthwhile for a tour of the old town with its narrow streets, the Sultan’s Palace, two Portuguese fortresses from the 16th century and a visit to the Bai Zubair National Museum. The tomb of the Queen of Sheba is located in Salalah, the capital of the frankincense land of Dhofar. In the mountain village of Al-Hamra you can visit old, typical mud houses. And Sur offers you shipyards in which the traditional dhows are built. In addition, Oman also has hot springs to offer.

Great Sultan Qaboos Mosque

The Great Sultan Qaboos Mosque was planned in 1992 according to the ideas of Sultan Quabus and built from 1995. The largest mosque in Oman has been open to believers, participants in study trips, students of the Islamic religion and tourists since May 4th, 2001. It is one of the special sights in Muscat and is definitely worth a visit. The mosque combines the Islamic traditions of different epochs and stands for a harmonious coexistence of all believers in the country.

The mosque as a superlative building

With the mosque, Sultan Al Qaboos created more than a house of prayer. Islamic art, culture and religious studies are at home in the huge complex in Al-Gubra on the busy main street “Al Qaboos Street” between Muscat and Sib.

The entire area covers 416,000 square meters. According to Omani tradition, it stands a little higher, surrounded by large green areas with well-tended lawn, bushes and frangipani trees. For the mosque with five minarets and two arcades, 300,000 tons of marble from Indian quarries were used. In addition to a main prayer hall and a smaller women’s prayer hall, the complex also includes a library with 20,000 valuable books, the Islamic Institute and a large information center.

Particularly noteworthy is the equipment of the main hall with a 50 m high dome. This was designed with stained glass and carries the largest crystal chandelier in the world. The chandelier is 14 m long, equipped with valuable Swarowski crystals and 1122 lamps. An imposing, hand-knotted Persian carpet with a value of more than 5 million euros lies on the floor. The wall panels with floral patterns in Persian tradition and the calligraphy on the wooden ceilings are also impressive.

Visiting the mosque is one of the most important stops when traveling through Oman. Travelers should observe the dress regulations for the Grand Sultan Qaboos Mosque. Arms and legs must be covered and women wear headscarves.

Old fortresses

Oman is still a real insider tip for holidaymakers from all over the world. If you visit the sultanate in the east of the Arabian Peninsula, you simply cannot avoid the capital Muscat. The two old fortresses Mirani and Jalali are among the greatest attractions in the city of 25,000. The most impressive and at the same time most famous fortifications in the country characterize the historic old town of Muscat and can be seen from afar.

Evidence of Ottoman craftsmanship

The two large fortresses, which are visited annually by thousands of locals and tourists from all over the world, were built at the end of the 16th century directly on the harbor to protect against intruders and were completed by the Portuguese. In the 18th century, the so-called western fortress Al Mirani was expanded to its present size according to the wishes of Imam Ahmed bin Said. From the top of the large fortress tower you have a great overview of the entire city and the immediate surroundings. The Al Jalali Fortress, also known as the East Fortress, is characterized both inside and outside by countless testimonies of Ottoman craftsmanship. A large and extensive museum is now housed in the smaller of the two fortresses.

Old fortresses Oman

Sightseeing in Sweden

Sightseeing in Sweden


The Hanseatic city on Gotland

Many cruise ships that start in northern Germany and are about to cross the Baltic Sea (e.g. on the trip to St. Petersburg or the Baltic States) stop in the southern Swedish city of Visby. Visby has around 23,000 inhabitants and is located on the west coast of the island of Gotland. Visby can also be reached by ferry from mainland Sweden. Visby is worthwhile for a day or more! The medieval old town is very well preserved and has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In earlier centuries Visby was a Hanseatic city and an important trading base between northern Germany, Scandinavia and Russia.

The old town and the Gotland Museum

The impressive medieval city wall of Visby (built 1250-1288) is three and a half kilometers long, and 27 watchtowers of the original 29 have been preserved (that’s a record!). If you stroll through the alleys of the old town, you will find numerous pretty photo motifs: There is the powder tower from the 12th century, the church “St. Karin” and the cathedral church “Sankta Maria”. The church “St. Karin” was destroyed in a war between Swedes and Danes in the 16th century and has been a romantic ruin ever since. The cathedral was built in the 12th century in Romanesque style and has a beautiful baroque interior. In the Gotland Museum, visitors can learn about the history of the island, which was inhabited since prehistoric times.

Shopping and trips

Handicrafts (ceramics), lambskins and sweets are popular souvenirs from Visby. There is a large selection in the pretty little shops in the old town! Perhaps there is still time for a stroll through the parks of Visby, the “Almedalen” and the botanical garden. And in the amusement park “Kneippbyn” – located just outside Visby – visitors can take a trip back in time to their childhood: there you can visit the “Villa Kunterbunt”, which appears in the film adaptations of the “Pippi Longstocking” novels. Hikes along the west coast of Gotland lead to fishing villages, secluded cliffs and beautiful sandy beaches.

Göta Canal

The outstanding marvel of Sweden

The Göta Canal meanders through Västergötland and Östergötland and was built 200 years ago. The canal is the largest construction project in Sweden. In the years of its construction, nearly 60,000 people worked literally digging the 87 km stretch with a spade and shovel. The leader of this gigantic project was the engineer Baltzar von Platen, who had recognized the importance of a transport route for goods traffic from the Baltic Sea to the Kattegat. While the Göta Canal played a decisive role in this function in the 19th century, the structure later lost its importance due to strong competition from rail and truck traffic.

The blue ribbon of Sweden

Nowadays the canal is one of the most famous Swedish tourist attractions. The waterway, the guest harbors, museums and sights attract three million tourists every year.
For a hundred years, three steamships have been cruising leisurely across the country by water. If you are looking for relaxation and tranquility and at the same time want to see a lot of Sweden’s beautiful nature, you can take part in multi-day cruises between Stockholm and Gothenburg. Day trips are also possible with other ships, but these should be booked in advance. In the summer months there are also many recreational boats that can also be rented on the canal.

58 locks

The Göta Canal leads through deep forests, pretty towns and yellow fields. The height differences determined by the landscape are overcome by locks. They are what make the Göta Canal so fascinating and are popular excursion destinations for visitors. Tourists can experience the fascinating spectacle of the lock in the cozy restaurants and cafés directly at the locks. The Berg lock staircase with its seven locks is particularly impressive. Here the Göta Canal overcomes almost 20 meters in altitude with the help of seven locks. The lock staircase is also interesting for those visitors who just want to watch the hustle and bustle on the canal and around the locks and have a cozy coffee. There is also an ice bar, a pretty café and a mini golf course.

Gripsholm Castle

A major attraction in Sweden

Mariefred is located west of Stockholm and is a town with narrow streets, neat wooden houses and an idyllic atmosphere. Visitors will find cozy cafés, galleries and many small shops here. The location on Mälaren, Sweden’s third largest lake, is also very beautiful. The most famous sight of the city is Gripsholm Castle, which is clearly visible on the banks of the Mälaren. The castle is known to German-speaking visitors through Kurt Tucholsky’s romance novel of the same name from 1931, which has also been filmed several times. But even without the world-famous writer and his story from the 30s, the beautiful complex meets all the requirements to be considered one of the most impressive sights in Northern Europe: an idyllic location, bright red and shimmering brick walls, four huge round towers and an exciting story. Gripsholm is still used by the Swedish royal family today. In 2001 King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia celebrated their silver wedding anniversary there.

Exciting tours, portraits and a prison tower

There is a state portrait collection in the castle, for which the National Museum in Stockholm is responsible. The imposing collection includes almost 4,500 paintings from the late 15th century to the present day. More portraits of famous Swedes are added every year. For example, there are portraits of Ingvar Kamprad, the founder of IKEA with an Allen key, and of Benny Andersson, the famous ABBA singer. The works from the 19th to the 21st century hang on the third floor of the mighty castle.

During the summer months, visitors have the opportunity to explore Gripsholm Castle on their own. If you want, you can of course also take part in a guided tour, which is offered all year round in German. Particularly noteworthy are the guided tours through the creepy prison tower. In the summer there are sometimes interesting guided tours for children.
A large selection of books, postcards, toys and souvenirs can be found in the castle’s boutique. More exclusive items such as glass, textiles, porcelain and other items based on models from the royal art collection are also offered here.

Gripsholm Castle

Attractions in Northern Ireland

Attractions in Northern Ireland

Take a study tour of Northern Ireland! Visit the capital Belfast and the other important cities and their sights, but also the national parks, monuments and the beautiful natural landscapes of Northern Ireland! The main attractions are the Queen University from Belfast, the City Hall, the castle on Cave Hill or the Ulster Museum in Belfast; the Anglican Cathedral of St. Columban as well as the medieval old town of Derry and other attractions that Northern Ireland has to offer. Get to know Northern Ireland on a tour!

Morne Mountains

The Morne Mountains are a mountain range in Northern Ireland south of Belfast. The visitor will find a fascinating mountain panorama there.
The Morne Mountains are a mountain range made up of granite. They are also called the Mountains of Morne and are located about 50 kilometers south of Northern Ireland’s capital Belfast, more precisely in County Down between Newcastle and Newry.
The mountains on Morne are always worth a trip. They offer visitors fascinating mountain landscapes in which gentle slopes alternate with peaks that are difficult to climb. The Morne Mountains are also a suitable destination for a study trip.


There are a total of 28 peaks in the Morne Mountains, all of which are worth seeing. They accommodate, among other things, the Slieve Donard. This mountain reaches a height of 849 meters above sea level, making it the highest point in Northern Ireland. Climbing Slieve Donard is not easy, but the visitor is compensated with a wonderful view of Murlough Bay. In addition, the view extends to the city of Newcastle.
The Morne Mountains are also an excellent area for long walks. The Slieve Corragh, the Slieve Binnian, the Butter Mountain and the Slieve Lamagan are particularly suitable for exploring. The best way to appreciate the size of the Morne Mountains is to take a look at the Ben Crom Reservoir and the Silent Valley.

Morne Mountains Recreation Area

The Morne Mountains are a popular Northern Irish recreation area and invite tourists to various leisure activities. These include, above all, hiking, mountaineering and cycling on a mountain bike.
Another attraction worth seeing is the Morne Wall. This is a 35-kilometer dry stone wall that surrounds the headwaters and reservoirs in the region. The wall, built between 1904 and 1922, is also used by hikers to mark the way. The Morne Wall leads over most of the peaks of the Mountains of Morne. Experienced hikers can walk through the dry stone wall within a day.

Giant’s Causeway

The Giant’s Causeway is one of Northern Ireland’s most visited attractions. The fascinating basalt columns, many of which have the shape of a hexagon, impress visitors from all over the world.

Origin of the natural monument

Around 60 million years ago, these pillars were formed as a result of volcanic activity on the earth’s crust. Lava was thrown to the surface in liquid form. This natural wonder can be proven not only at the Giant’s Causeway on the coast of the Northern Irish Counties Antrim, but also as far as the Inner Hebrides. Formations similar to those found on the Giant’s Causeway can be found on the Hebridean island of Staffa. The cooling lava developed into the extraordinary basalt columns in both places.

Unique stone formations

On a trip to this unique place you can marvel at the approximately 40,000 basalt columns. These are hexagonal and have an average width of 30 cm. The pillars rise several meters high. Some of the copies have 4, 5, 7 or even 8 pages. Some of these pillars have special names such as Horse Shoe or Giant’s Organ. The most impressive collection of columns is the so-called amphitheater, where the columns rise up to 25 meters in height and look like seats.

The legends

The Giant’s Causeway, which by the way means something like “The Giant’s Dam”, has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. There are numerous legends surrounding this natural monument. A giant named Finn McCool is portrayed as the builder of the Giant’s Causeway. He is said to have created the natural monument so that he could reach the Scottish island of Staffa. According to legend, this is where his lady of the heart lived.

The visitor center

For study trips, it is advisable to visit the visitor center directly on the Giant’s Causeway. In this modern building with a grass roof, interesting facts about the Giant’s Causeway and the region are presented in several exhibition rooms. The many legends of the giant Finn McCool are also brought to life.

Dark Hedges

Dark Hedges Northern Ireland

The most beautiful avenue in Ireland

Anyone who has ever traveled through Ireland knows that the island has a lot to offer, both culturally and scenically. A particularly fascinating sight can be found in Northern Ireland. Near the small town of Ballymoney, in County Antrim, travelers will find a unique sight. An avenue, lined with ancient beeches, the gnarled branches of the trees are intertwined at a lofty height above the street. These are the Dark Hedges, one of Northern Ireland’s most popular attractions.

Made by human hands

This fairytale avenue was created by human hands. The road that lines it leads to an old mansion, the Gracehill Estate. Its owners planted numerous beeches along the driveway in the 18th century. In doing so, they laid the foundation for the avenue’s beauty and fame today.

A masterpiece of nature

Dark hedges; in German this is called “dark hedges”. And with their intertwined branches, the ancient beech trees actually look like gigantic dark hedges. It is precisely this imposing sight that attracts large numbers of tourists and study trip participants year after year. The Dark Hedges are not just an avenue. Although it was created by humans, it is ultimately a masterpiece of nature. With their imposing and at the same time mysterious nature, the Dark Hedges fit all too well into the rough but picturesque landscape of Ireland, which is shaped by wind and weather. During a walk through the avenue you can not only enjoy the tranquility and beauty of the majestic trees. It also seems as if you can listen to the stories of the ancient beech trees as soon as the wind blows through them. The attraction has become very well known in recent years thanks to the film and television industry. Again and again, the Dark Hedges with their mysterious charm are used as a filming location. The successful series Game of Thrones brought the avenue to worldwide fame.

Macedonia – study trips and round trips

Macedonia – the land of Alexander the Great! This country has something to offer for everyone. The landscapes range from mountain chains and floodplains to tectonic lakes such as Lake Ohrid and Lake Prespa. Lake Ohrid is very deep and rich in fossils. Both lakes and the surrounding national park have been declared UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Skopje, the city on the Vardar River and the capital at the same time, has many attractions to offer: the University of Sv. Kiril i Metodij, the East Manian stone bridge to the old town, the statue of Mother Theresa, the Mustapha-Pasha Mosque, the Great Bazaar, Kale Castle, various theaters, museums and other cultural institutions. But don’t forget the cities of Kumanovo; Bitola with the landmark Saat Kula (clock tower), the central shopping street of Sirok Sokak or Korzo; the city of Tetovo with the remains of the East Manian rule in the form of the Colorful Mosque or the Macedonian ski resort Sar Planina, and last but not least one of the largest cities in Macedonia from the Polog region, Gostivar. A round trip through Macedonia is guaranteed to be worth it!

Attractions in Northern Ireland

Iran History

Iran History


According to Bridgat, Iran has traces of human occupation since the Stone Age. During the Neolithic, a process of sedentarization, stable food production and the establishment of short-distance exchange routes developed.

The Copper Age, characterized by the appearance of copper and painted ceramic elements in Susiana (Southwest Iran) and Sialk (central-west), extends in Iran throughout the 4th millennium BC. Urban settlements begin to emerge, in a regional process that takes place between Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Archaeological Complex of Bactria-Margiana and the Indus Valley Culture.


At the beginning of the 3rd century BC, a form of writing appears in Susa, possibly derived from the Sumerian system to represent the Elamite language. From 2000 BC the Medes and Persians, Aryan or Indo-European peoples, began to move from the plains of southern Russia and Central Asia to Europe and Asia.

The Median rule, however, was brief, thanks to the work undertaken by a Persian nobleman of the Achaemenid family, Cyrus (555-529 BC), king of Anshan, who unified the Persians, subdued the Medes, and conquered Babylon. Syria, the Mediterranean Levant and Asia Minor. His work of conquest was continued by his son and successor, Cambyses (530-522), who annexed Egypt and marked the maximum extension of the Achaemenid Empire, configuring the largest empire hitherto known in the Near East.

The splendor of the Persian Empire is marked by the figure of Darius I (522-486). He devoted himself primarily to organizing the vast inherited empire through satrapies. He drew up a network of roads that were intended to link the various parts of the empire, the most famous of which is the Royal Road from Susa to Sardis, and also palaces and monuments in the capitals: Susa and Persepolis. He made Mazdeism an official religion. With him also began the decline of the Achaemenid Empire, by undertaking a fight against the Greeks that would become known as the medical wars and continued by his successors: Xerxes, Artaxerxes, Darius II, Artaxerxes II and Darius III. The continuous defeats of the Persians culminated in the invasion (in 334 BC and the end of the empire itself by Alexander the Great (336 BC). At his death, the successors or Diádocos divided their territories, and passed to Seleuco I Nicátor (300 BC).

Middle Ages

When the Arab conquest took place, after 641, the country was Islamized, but it maintained, like almost no province in the Arab empire, its marked individuality, both in its language and in the peculiar orientation of the arts and letters. When the crisis of the Baghdad caliphate struck, Persia gained virtual independence under the descendants of Tahir, the last Arab viceroy, and then under the Seleucid Persian or Turkish dynasties. Despite the political upheaval, the cultural and scientific life of the period was remarkably rich, of which the poet, mathematician, philosopher and astronomer Ummar al-Khayyam is an exponent.

Modern age

In 1258 a new era opens with the Mongol invasion of Kublai Khan. After three centuries of Mongol domination, the dynastic struggles between the descendants of Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) and the Ottomans ended up making room for the Persian Ismail Sha. His grandson Abbas I (1557 – 1629) managed to unify the country, expel the Turks from the western area and the Portuguese who had occupied the Hormuz region, as well as conquer part of Afghanistan. For a short period, Iran was the hegemonic power, from India to Syria. But then he had to face the ambitions of the Russians who were advancing in Central Asia and the English, who were approaching from the Gulf and Afghanistan.

The king’s weakness in the face of the growing foreign presence gave rise to a strong nationalist movement, influenced by the ideas of Syrian pan-Islamic intellectuals.

Recent history

In 2002, the president of the United States George W. Bush included Iran in the so-called axis of evil, alluding to it being a state that supports terrorism. Iran is also accused of trying to develop an atomic weapon.

Iran accuses the United States of waging “psychological warfare” by spreading false news about Tehran’s plans to make atomic bombs. According to the Iranian Foreign Ministry, Tehran will continue its peaceful nuclear activities without being influenced by the statements of the head of the CIA, Leon Panetta, who said that the Persian nation could build two atomic bombs within two years, justifying a foreseeable attack by United States against Iran.

The US, the largest driver of sanctions on Iran and North Korea for their nuclear programs, has more than 6,000 tactical nuclear warheads, and invests $ 40 billion a year in its nuclear arsenal and in developing new ones. destruction systems, which go to the coffers of the multinationals of war nucleated in the North American Military Industrial Complex.

Except for Russia, the US mathematically surpasses all the capitalist powers on the planet by 9 to 1 in nuclear power and its capacity to deploy troops and conventional weapons is close to the same percentages.

The Islamic Republic was subjected to the fourth round of sanctions by the United Nations Security Council as a result of the development of its nuclear plans, to which the United States and the European powers attribute military objectives.

Iran History

Japanese Literature by Periods

Japanese Literature by Periods

Japanese literature spans a period of nearly two millennia of writing. In the earliest works we see the influence of Chinese literature, but Japan quickly developed its own style. When Japan reopened its ports to Western trade and diplomacy in the 19th century, Western literature greatly influenced its writers, Western influence is still evident today.

Nara period (710-794)

Japanese literature has its origins in oral tradition, the first records of this literature were made in the 8th century after the writing system was introduced from China. The Kojiki (record of ancient subjects) and Nihon shoki (chronicle of Japan) were two government projects that were completed in 712 and 720 respectively. The most brilliant work of this period was the Man’yoshu, an anthology of 4,500 poems composed by people of all walks of life and collected around 759.

The “tanka” verses of 31 syllables (5-7-5-7-7) also began to be worked on. In 905 the poetic anthology: Kokin wakashu or Kokinshu, a collection of ancient and modern poems, was published under the order of the emperor. It was a very important post.

Heian Period (794-1185) In the resplendent aristocratic culture that flourished in the 11th century, when the use of the Chinese-derived hiragana alphabet was spreading, the ladies of the court played the leading role in the development of literature. One of them, Murasaki Shikibu wrote a 54-chapter novel Genji monogatari (The Tale of Genji) (early 11th century); Sei Shonagon wrote Makura no shosi (The Pillow Book) a collection of essays and notes (around 996).

Others wrote diaries and stories that continue to be read today. The appearance of Konjaku monogatari (Tales of a time that has passed) around 1120 added a new dimension to literature. This collection of more than 1000 Buddhist and secular accounts from India, China and Japan is important for the number of descriptions of the life of the nobility and the life of the people in Japan at that time.

Kamakura-Muromachi period (1185-1573)

In the last half of the 12th century, the warriors of the Taira (Heike) clan seized the imperial power of the court, forming a new aristocracy. Heike mono-gatari (Heike’s Tale) portrays the triumphs and defeats of the Taira in their wars with the Minamoto (genji) clan and was completed in the first half of the 13th century.

This period also produced intimate literature such as Chomei’s Hojoki de Kamo (Description of my cabin) (1212), which reflects on the uncertainty of existence; Yoshida Kenko’s Tsurezuregusa (Essays in Free Time) (1330) a work with impressive reflections on life. Both works raise the question of spiritual salvation.

Edo period (1603-1868)

In this period, two very important figures emerged in prose: Ihara Saikaku who realistically portrayed the life of Osaka merchants and Chikamatsu Monzaemin who used joruri, a way of telling hostilities with kabuki songs and works. These two writers made literature flourish. Years later Yosa Buson wrote haiku, excellent works that portrayed nature. The writer Ueda Akinari produced several works on Gothic stories that were called Ugetsu monogatari, Tales of the Moonlight and the Rain (1776).

Meiji period to the present

The Meiji period is the stage in which Japan under Western influence began to develop a more modern literature. At this time the unification of written and spoken language was advocated; and a new form of novel was accepted thanks to Futabatei Shimei’s Ukigumo (Clouds without course) (1887). The translation of foreign poetry helped create a new poetic genre and its corresponding literary movement.

Novelists Mori Ogai and Natsume Soseki studied in Germany and Great Britain, respectively, and their works reflect the influence of these countries. Soseki directed several literary figures. One of them, Akutagawa Ryunosuke, wrote several novels based on his knowledge of Japanese classics. His suicide in 1927 was taken as a symbol of the agony that Japan was experiencing due to the rapid processes of modernization, these changes were also subjects of literature.

In 1968 Kawabata Yasunari received the Nobel Prize for literature, he was the first Japanese to get it, years later in 1994 Oe Kenzaburo, also Japanese, also received it. These two writers and other contemporary authors such as Tanizaki Jun’ichiro, Mishima Yukio, Abe Kobo, and Inoue Yasushi have seen their works translated into various languages.


According to bridgat, the culture of Japan is the result of a historical process that begins with the waves of immigration originating from the continent of Asia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, followed by a strong cultural influence from China and, later, a long period of isolation with the the rest of the world called Sakoku from the Tokugawa shogunate until the beginning of the Meiji Era, at the end of the 19th century, where it received immense foreign influence and which increased after the end of World War II. This resulted in a culture distinct from other Asian cultures.

In Japan, personal interrelationships are highly influenced by the ideas of “honor”, “obligation” and “duty”, and which represents a different custom to an individualistic and liberal culture of Western countries. The conceptions of “morality” and “desirable behaviors” are less practiced in family, school and friendship situations, however a more formal practice is observed in front of superiors or unknown people.

On the other hand, the Japanese have an intricate and complicated sense of humor, which is highly reflected in language, culture, religion and ethics, which is sometimes considered very difficult to interpret by other cultures.

Japanese Literature

Saudi Arabia Main Cities

Saudi Arabia Main Cities


Mecca, Al-Makka, city ​​in the west of Saudi Arabia, in a rocky, desert-like basin of the Hidjas landscape, between the coastal plain and the highlands, 277 m above sea level, (2018) 1.97 million residents.

As the birthplace of Muhammad, Mecca is the holiest city and most important place of pilgrimage for Islam (Hajj; 700,000–900,000 pilgrims annually, mainly via the Djidda airport), a pure cult and cultural center (excluding agriculture and industry) with an Islamic-theological college, school for Islamic jurisprudence, Saudi Arabian institute for further education, several madrasas and libraries; Water supply originally from the Ain Subaida well, 15 km away, today from seawater desalination plants in Jeddah. Mecca and its immediate surroundings are not accessible to non-Muslims.

The center of the city and the most important goal of the pilgrimage is the Kaaba in the courtyard of the main mosque (built 775–785, today’s shape in the 16th century, expanded in 1955; seven minarets). Other places of pilgrimage are the Semsem well and the graves of the companions and the first wife of Muhammad (Hadidja) in the Al-Mala cemetery. R. Gutbrod, F. Otto and Hermann Kendel built a mosque and a hotel in 1974 with conference rooms grouped around a green inner courtyard. The world’s largest clock has been located on the Mecca Royal Clock Tower since 2010.


Mecca, mentioned as Makoraba around 150 AD, was already an important trading center as a crossroads of old caravan roads in the border area between the rain- cultivated areas of the southwestern Arabian highlands and the desert steppes in pre-Islamic times. The Koraic, also because of its religious attraction (through the Kaaba), made it a center of the Trans-Arab caravan trade at the end of the 6th / beginning of the 7th century, Mecca gained political status through Mohammed(622 Hidjra; 630 conquest of Mecca) as the center of the Islamic world Meaning. Looted by the Karmatians in 930, 960–1803 and 1813–1924 Sherif of the Hasan family (grandson of Mohammed) had the emirate of Mecca owner (10th to 15th centuries under nominal sovereignty of the rulers of Egypt, since 1517 the Ottomans); 1803-13 Mecca belonged to the Wahhabi Empire. In 1916, Husain I. Ibn Ali made himself independent of Turkish suzerainty, but had to give way for good after the occupation of the city by Ibn Saud in 1925; In 1926 Mecca was incorporated into Saudi Arabia.


According to bridgat, Medina, Al-Madina, is an oasis city in Saudi Arabia, in the Hidjas in an irrigated plain at the foot of a volcanic plateau, 639 m above sea level, (2018) 1.4 million residents.

Islamic University (founded in 1961), Taibah University (founded in 2003), libraries. Medina is (after Mecca) the second most important place of pilgrimage in Islam (closed to non-Muslims) and an important trading center; extensive date palm groves and vegetable gardens; Seawater desalination plant; Airfield.

The “Great Mosque” (built in 707–709), which was groundbreaking for the development of the Islamic mosque, with a. the tomb of the Prophet Mohammed, crowned by a green dome, was reconstructed and rebuilt after fires (1256 and 1481) (especially 15th / 16th centuries), most recently in the late Ottoman period (1848-60). Much of this renovation was replaced in the first half of the 1950s by a new building with two inner courtyards, which was greatly expanded in 1985-90, so that it now occupies almost the entire space of the former, demolished old town and takes into account the rapidly increasing number of pilgrims (Space for 130,000 people).

Medina, when Jathrib was already an important city on the Frankincense Route in pre-Islamic times and since the 1st millennium BC. Inhabited in 622 BC, took in Mohammed and his companions after his emigration from Mecca (Hidjra) and was renamed in Medina (Arabic for “place of [religious] jurisdiction”), the center of the early Islamic community he created (632–656 capital of the Arab-Islamic empire and residence of the caliphs). The Umayyad Caliph Walid I (705-715) left the site of the former house and the grave of Muhammad and his daughter Fatima build the “Great Mosque” with the help of Byzantine builders; therefore, as the “city of the prophets” or “enlightened city”, Medina became one of the holy places of Islam. From 1517/1532 under Ottoman rule, 1803–13 belonging to the Wahhabi Empire, 1916–18 center of the “Kingdom of Hidjas” of Husain I Ibn Ali, Medina came to Saudi Arabia in 1924.


Djidda [d ʒ -], Jeddah, Jidda [d ʒ -], Jedda [d ʒ -], port city in Saudi Arabia, on the Red Sea, 70 km west of Mecca, second largest with (2018) 4.4 million residents City of the country.

Djidda is the seat of foreign diplomatic missions and the state radio and television company, has a university (founded in 1967), technical schools and museums (Abdul Raouf Khalil Museum). As the economic center of the country, it is the seat of numerous banks and insurance companies as well as the Saudi Arab Airlines; Oil refinery, steel rolling mill, cement factory, assembly plant for commercial vehicles, large power plant, seawater desalination plants. Main trading port in the country; the international airport, 25 km north of Jeddah, is one of the largest and most modern on earth (design: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill); Terminal with large tent roof construction (completed in 1982). The port and airport are meeting points for pilgrims to Mecca.

Three reconstructed city gates give an impression of the former city fortifications (destroyed in 1940). In the listed old town (UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2014) there are tower-like houses with wooden-barred oriels from the 18th and 19th centuries. Sights include the restored Nasif House and the Al-Shafee Mosque. The skyrocketing oil profits since 1973 made the modern expansion of the city possible. The sports hall of the university (1981) was built by F. Otto and R. Gutbrod. The National Commercial Bank was built by the SOM group of architects from 1982. The Kingdom Tower has been located since 2013 (Architect: A. Smith) under construction, which, with a planned height of around 1,000 m, will be the tallest building in the world upon completion. In the open-air museum “Corniche” a. Sculptures by H. Moore and V. Vasarély.

Djidda, a pre-Islamic foundation, important in the Middle Ages as a fortress and especially as a port for Mecca, came to the Ottomans after 1532. At the beginning of the 19th century it was the scene of the clashes between Mehmed Ali and the Wahhabis. Up until the destruction by the Wahhabis there was a monumental burial place of the ancestral mother Eva (Djidda is the Arabic term for “grandmother”). In 1916, Djidda came to the Kingdom of Hidjas, and in 1925 to Saudi Arabia.

jeddah saudi arabia

Hungary Modern Arts

Hungary Modern Arts

Classicism and 19th century

At the beginning of the 19th century the cathedrals of Esztergom and Eger as well as numerous churches were rebuilt. In Budapest, buildings of classicism (National Museum 1837–47, by Mihály Janos Pollack, * 1773, † 1855), neo-Renaissance (opera 1875–84, by Miklós Ybl, * 1814, † 1891) and neo-Gothic (parliament 1884–1904, by I. Steindl).

The attempt of a typical “Magyar” architecture were the buildings Ö. Lechners, the Kunstgewerbemuseum (1893–96) and the Post Office Savings Bank (around 1900) built in the Art Nouveau style.

Ferenczy represented the classicist sculpture, M. Izsó the national romanticism.

Well-known painters of the 19th century were Miklós Barabás (* 1810, † 1898), the v. a. Portraits of freedom fighters were created by Károly Markó (* 1822, † 1891), who went public in particular with landscape paintings, and Gyula Benczúr (* 1844, † 1920), whose portraits, genre and historical representations attracted attention. National pictorial themes were designed by B. Székely von Ádámos and Viktor Madarász (* 1830, † 1917) in the manner of the Viennese and Munich history painters (meaning the wall paintings in the stairwell of the National Museum and the Vígadó [casino] in Budapest, 1864, by Lotz Károly, * 1833, † 1904, and Than Mór, * 1828, † 1899) and partly socially critical by M. Munkácsy.

In the field of applied arts, the founding of the Herend porcelain factory after taking over a stoneware factory in 1839 was of great importance.

Modern and present

At the turn of the 20th century, open-air painting became influential. Leading master of the painting colony »Szolnok«, whose members under direct observation of nature v. a. Painting landscapes and genre pictures was A. Fényes. The artists’ colony in Baia Mare (Nagybánya in Hungarian), which emerged in 1896 and was founded in 1902, also devoted itself to outdoor painting (including P. Szinyei Merse, K. Ferenczy and, in the second generation, István Szönyi [* 1894, † 1960], István Csók [* 1865, † 1961], Bernáth Aurél [* 1895, † 1982]).

In 1908 the Association of Hungarian Impressionists and Naturalists (»MIÉNK«) was formed, in which, among other things. Pál Szinyei Merse , K. Ferenczy and J. Rippl-Rónai were active. The latter, at the same time the most important representative of post-impressionism, belonged to the Nabis.

Csontváry was the founder of a visionary-expressive painting. The artist group »Nyolcak« (1909–14), whose most important representative was B. Czóbel , adhered to the teachings of P. Cézanne and those of the Fauves.

Important sculptors of Cubism was J. Csáky. Outstanding representatives of constructivism come from the circle of artists around L. Kassák, among others. S. Bortnyik (his best-known student was V. Vasarély), as well as L. Moholy Nagy, who taught at the Bauhaus.

The principles of the Bauhaus also had an impact on the activities of the »Cirpac« group of architects (founded by Farkas Ferenc Molnár, * 1897, † 1945) in the 1920s.

The artistic tendencies between the two world wars show, among other things. the works of G. Derkovits, which are dedicated to social issues, furthermore the lyrical-pantheistic landscape paintings by J. Egry and the deeply dramatic surrealistic visions of Lajos Vajda (* 1908, † 1941).

The sculpture of the era was under the influence of A. Maillol: Ferenc Medgyessy (* 1881, † 1958) and Béni Ferenczy (* 1890, † 1967). The group »Európai Iskola« (1945–49) united surrealist and abstract tendencies. In the early 1960s, an artist group was formed around T. Csernus, based on strongly realistic movements including Pop Art (L. Lakner). The paintings and graphics by B. Kondor and the works of the sculptor Erzsébet Schaár are very individual.

Around 1965, the avant-garde, oriented towards international trends, developed a broad spectrum of artistic activities between the opposing poles of constructivist-serial art (A. Péter Türk, * 1943, † 2015) and actionism (M. Erdély; Tamás Szentjóby, * 1944). In addition to representatives of the avant-garde such as Endre Bálint (* 1914, † 1986), Ilona Keserü (* 1933) or István Nádler (* 1938) and the transavant-garde such as I. Bak or Ákos Birkás (* 1941), which further developed the different lines of the rich tradition of modern Hungarian art, tendencies of contemporary Western art were increasingly taken up in the 1980s and 1990s.

The painting shows a variety of individual styles. Tamás Soós (* 1955) and Zoltan Sebestyén (* 1954) continue the gestural and coloristic tradition. Artists as diverse as András Koncz (* 1953), Károly Kelemen (* 1948), László Fehér (* 1953), Sándor Pinczehelyi (* 1946), István Mazzag (* 1958), Áron Gábor (* 1954) and István Ef Zámbó (* 1950), whose works range from realistic images to postmodern quotations.

According to bridgat, the sculptures claim international rank, among other things. by Attila Mata (* 1953), Ildikó Várnagy (* 1944), László Fe Lugossy (* 1947), György Cseszlai (* 1957), Lajos Klicsu (* 1957), El Kazovszkij (* 1948) and Klára Borbás (* 1955); the limit for room installation exceed Géza Samu (* 1947), Imre Bukta (* 1952), János Szirtes (* 1954) and Janos Sugar (* 1958).

Within modern contemporary architecture, among others, Imre Makovecz (* 1935, † 2011; House of Culture in Sárospatak [Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén district], 1981; Church of Paks, 1990), István Janáky (office building in Budapest, 1993) and Gábor Turáni, who dealt with modern Hungarian architecture of the 1930s and, more recently, Mária Siklósi (National Theater in Budapest, 2002).

Hungary Modern Arts

Customized trip – Everest Base Camp & Island Peak 6189m Climbing trip

Customized trip – Everest Base Camp & Island Peak 6189m Climbing trip

Basic travel information

Climbing trip in the legendary Mount Everest National Park, Nepal’s Himalayas.

We get used to the thin atmosphere by visiting Mount Everest base camp before climbing Island Peak. The demanding but rewarding journey culminates in the ascent to the top of Island Peak, or Imja Tsen in Nepali (6189 m). The ascent takes place along fixed ropes with the help of logging and ice irons.

The mountain is not technically difficult and is well suited for the first 6,000-meter Himalayan peak. The trip is suitable for experienced hikers and those interested in mountaineering.




Arrival in Kathmandu, transfer to hotel. In the evening there is the opportunity to make last minute purchases for hiking.

NOTE: Hotel accommodation according to international practice from 14:00. If your flight arrives in the morning, when booking your trip, select the day before arrival as the arrival date.



An early flight to the Everest area to Lukla, where our trek begins. Our equipment will be transferred to our sher carriers. Overnight in Phakding village (2610 m).




We ascend through the pine and spruce forest sherpa capital, Namche Bazaar (3450 m).




We get used to the thin atmosphere by taking a few hours walk to the vantage point above the city from where there is a magnificent view of the Everest massif




The route of the day begins at about 2h with a steady transition to Sanasa, after which we ascend a calm and airy route to the pass of Mong La, where we will have lunch. We descend to Phortse Thanga, from where about an hour ascent to the village of Phortse (3840 m). The scenery of the Kang Tega and Gokyo Valley glaciers is bold.




One of the most beautiful hiking trails takes us high above the Imja Khola River to the village of Pangboche (3860 m), one of the highest year-round villages in the Everest region.




Our route rises steadily over the tree line to the village of Dingboche (4410 m) at the beginning of the Khumbu Valley. We get used to the thin atmosphere and take a trip to the village of Chukung (4730 m), located at the foot of the impressive three-kilometer south wall of Lhotse. Island Peak appears from Chukung for the first time.



At this altitude, it is good to get another rest period to adjust, just relax or enjoy a nice day trip to Chukung overlooking the Imja valleys and Lhotse face.




Short hike to Dughla (4600 m). In the afternoon, the opportunity to ascend to the edge of the Khumbu Glacier, which offers stunning views of the upper valley.




Following the Khumbu Glacier, we ascend to the barren village of Lobuche (4910 m). In the afternoon the opportunity to climb to the edge of the glacier to admire the huge stream of ice.




We continue our journey following the Khumbu Glacier to Gorakshep (5140 m). Opportunity to ascend the ridge of Kala Pathar (5545 m), which offers the best views of the summit of Everest and the base camp.




We hike following the edge of the glacier and eventually along the Khumbu Glacier itself to Everest Base Camp (5360 m). The views of Khumbu Icefall are breathtaking. We return the same route to Gorakshep and on to Lobuche.




We ascend a familiar route to the village of Chukung (4730 m) where we will stay for the next 2 nights.




A day of rest and practice in Chukung. We practice the rope and climbing techniques needed to climb Island Peak and gather strength for the coming dawn.




Following the edge of the glacier, we ascend to the base camp of Island Peak (5150 m) and prepare for the ascent of the next night. (L, I)




We start the ascent towards the top of Imja Tsen (6189 m) in the morning in the light of the headlamps. We ascend from the glacier to the top with the help of solid ropes. Stunning views of the south wall of Lhotse, Ama Dablam and Makalu. (UNDER)



We have set aside an extra day for the summit in case of bad weather or illness. (UNDER)




After the summit, we return to Chukung and further down towards Namche Bazaar. (A)




In Namche, we celebrate the last days of hiking by taking a sauna in the Finnish sauna and making the last souvenir purchases in the small alleys.




We hike to Lukla and have our last supper together with the whole expedition. We say goodbye to the plaintiffs, chefs and helpers before the next morning flight back to the hustle and bustle of Kathmandu.




We fly early in the morning from Lukla to the human bustle of Kathmandu.



We will visit Kathmandu’s Royal Square and Swayambhunath’s Buddhist stupa and relax before returning. (I)




Transfer from the hotel to the airport. (A)


Customized trip - Everest Base Camp & Island Peak 6189m climbing trip

Customized Travel – Safaga, Nemo Dive

Customized Travel – Safaga, Nemo Dive

The best dive sites in the Red Sea – Brothers, Daedalus and Elphinstone!

Brothers Islands are two peaks of an underwater mountain (Small and Big Brother) that rise to the surface of the Red Sea about 100 kilometers off the coast of Egypt. The Brothers Islands offer world-class wall diving with top visibility. The walls are covered with soft corals and angel wing corals, creating a stunning color spectrum. The remote location of the area attracts a lot of marine animals such as big tuna, horse mackerel and snappers, followed by bigger predators such as hammerhead, whitefish and fox sharks. Reef sharks are almost certainly seen on Small Brother. Devilishness is also a very common sight in Brotheres. There is also something to see at the Brothere for the wreck diver. The Egyptian connecting boat AIDA II and the cargo ship Numidia are resting on Big Brother. Both wrecks are covered in coral throughout.

The Daedelus Reef is also part of a marine protected area. Daedelus is a large reef with a lighthouse. It is the furthest reef from the continent in the Red Sea. Hard corals, hammer sharks and reef sharks are common sightings at Daedelus.

The northern tip of Elphinstone ’s reef is covered in soft coral and its colors in the morning circle are unique. The white-tailed shark is also a common sight on Elphinstone. At the southern tip of the Elphinstone Reef is the famous arch, located at a depth of 45-56 meters.

We operate the route with four liveaboard boats: Emperor Asmaa 30 / 7m 20 people, Emperor Echo 30 / 7.8m 24 people, Emperor Elite 38 / 8m 26 people and Emperor Superior 37 / 8.3m 25 people. From October 2018 to April 2019, direct flights to Hurghada on Thursday departures from Emperor Asma.

Liveaboard departures from Hurghada or Marsa Galip.



Arrival at the airport and transfer to the boat (Hurghada / Marsa Galip) or to the hotel. Boat stay at 6 p.m.




We leave the port at about 09:00. Venebriefing, which reviews important safety issues and general issues related to diving. 2-3 dives on the reefs of Hurghada. Opportunity to check the emphasis and refine your skills in peace before going to the conservation area. Possible night diving. (UNDER)




3 dives with Big Brother. A briefing before the dives, which goes through the diving conditions. Sailing can affect diving and the route. Night dives are not allowed in the reserve. (UNDER)




3 dives with Small Brother. A briefing before the dives, which goes through the diving conditions. Sailing can affect diving and the route. Night diving is not allowed in the Marine Park. (UNDER)




3 dives on the Daedelus Reef. A briefing before the dives, which goes through the diving conditions. Sailing can affect diving and the route. Night diving is not allowed in the Marine Park. (UNDER)




3 dives on the Daedelus Reef. A briefing before the dives, which goes through the diving conditions. Sailing can affect diving and the route. Night diving is not allowed in the Marine park. (UNDER)




2 dives on the Elphinstone Reef. A briefing before the dives, which goes through the diving conditions. Sailing can affect diving and the route. Drive to the port (Hurghada / Marsa Galip). Overnight in a boat or hotel. (UNDER)




Departure from the boat at 09:00 in the morning and transfer to the airport or hotel at 09:30. (A)


Customized Travel - Simply the Best, Emperor Divers

Republic of the Congo Economy

Republic of the Congo Economy

Republic of the Congo borders Cameroon and the Central African Republic to the north, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Angolan exclave Cabinda to the east and south, the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest and Gabon to the west.

As a country located in central Africa according to COUNTRYAAH.COM, Republic of the Congo stretches on both sides of the equator north and west of the border rivers Congo and Ubangi in the area of ​​the Congo Basin and its marginal thresholds. Flat layers of the extensive basin landscape and the heavily eroded threshold areas determine the surface forms; vast areas and hilly areas predominate. The highest peaks are in the area of ​​the Lower Guinea Sill (in the west of the country) in the mountainous region of Mayombe (Mont Nabemba: 1,020 m above sea level), which is in front of a flat coastal land on the Atlantic Ocean (40 km) in the south-west. Extensive swamps occur in the northeast of the country, in the basin of the lower Ubangi and Sanga.


Measured in terms of gross national income (GNI) of (2017) US $ 1,360 per resident, the Congo is one of the African low-income countries. The dominant branch of the economy since the mid-1970s has been the oil industry with a contribution of (2014) 95% of export earnings, 70% of state income and 59% of gross domestic product (GDP). As a result of the drop in oil prices on the world market and high foreign debt (2015: US $ 4.77 billion), the Republic of the Congo slipped into recession (GDP fell by 2.8% in 2016). The agricultural sector, which only generates 8.7% of GDP, has long been neglected in favor of – less successful – industrialization, but today it still employs around 30% of the workforce. Services and trade account for 41.1% of the generation of GDP.

Foreign trade: The country’s foreign trade balance is positive due to oil exports, but varies depending on the development of world market prices (import value in 2014: US $ 3.3 billion; export value US $ 6.6 billion). In addition to crude oil, mainly forestry products are exported. The main trading partners are China, France, Italy and Turkey.


Around 31% of the state’s land is used for agricultural purposes (around 2% arable land, 29% meadows and pastures). Manioc, maize, peanuts, yams, plantains are grown for self-sufficiency, while small amounts of coffee, cocoa and sugar cane ( cash crops ) are grown for export. Smallholders cultivate more than 90% of the area under cultivation. Due to the low fertility of the soil and the lack of traffic in rural areas, the country is dependent on the importation of agricultural products, especially wheat, rice and maize. Because of the lack of fertile pastureland and the spread of the tsetse fly, livestock farming is also not of great importance.

Forestry: Congo has large forests, around 65% of the country is designated as forest areas. Tropical precious woods such as okoumé and limba wood are exported. The timber industry is increasingly in the hands of foreign corporations.

Fisheries: Inshore and river fisheries are only important to meet the needs of the population.

Natural resources

The first oil deposits were discovered near Pointe-Noire as early as 1957; Since 1968, the production in the shelf area has taken a clear upswing. The oil reserves are 200 million t. The natural gas reserves (reserves: 90 billion m 3) are now also being used commercially. Other mineral resources include: Potash salts, diamonds, zinc, gold, phosphate, bauxite, iron ore, copper and magnesium.


In addition to the oil processing in Pointe-Noire (oil refinery), the food, textile, cement and chemical industries as well as wood processing are the most important branches of industry. Important industrial locations are Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire.


Thanks to the favorable climate, beautiful sandy beaches and lagoons as well as the savannahs and tropical rainforests, tourism has gained in importance and the number of foreign visitors (2014: 252,000) has risen sharply.


The transport network is concentrated in the southern parts of the country. The dense tropical forests and impassable swamp areas in the north are hardly developed. River navigation is the most important and often the only mode of transport here. The railway network consists of a 510 km east-west link from Brazzaville to Pointe-Noire. The most important road connection of the 17,300 km long road network runs parallel to this railway line. The south-north axis from Brazzaville via Owando to Ouesso on the border with Cameroon is also of great importance. The rather dense river network (Congo, Ubangi and the tributaries) favors inland navigation. The main axis of the inland waterway network with a length of 1,120 km is the connection from Brazzaville to Bangui (Central African Republic). The country’s only overseas port is Pointe-Noire. Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire and Oyo have international airports. There are also numerous airfields and landing strips.


The entire north and large parts of the Lower Guinea Sill are covered with tropical rainforest, which turns into wet forest on the flanks of the Lower Guinea Sill. Mangrove is widespread on the coast, followed by wet savannah.

Republic of the Congo Economy

France Contemporary Literature

France Contemporary Literature

The taste for historical reconstructions is the basis of the works of M. Gallo (b. 1932), author of a biography of Napoleon (Napoléon), divided into four volumes published separately between 1997 and 1998. The Egyptologist Ch. Jacq (b.1947), graduated in archeology at the Sorbonne, is the author of interesting essays (L’Egypte des Grands Pharaons, 1981) and novels set in Ancient Egypt, including L’affaire Toutankhamon (1992), the 5 volumes of Ramsès (1993-96), Le Pharaon noir(1997) and Néfer le silencieux (2000). The erotic-sentimental vein counts among the main authors S. Filippini (b. 1950), who in Un Amour de Paul (2000) follows in the footsteps traced by Pasolini in Teorema, A. Jardin (b.1965), author of Autobiographie d’un amour (1999) in which sentimental triangles and marital crises are described, and E. Fontenaille (b.1960) who in his novels privileges the use of the Freudian imaginary. Among the most interesting authors are A. Boudard (1925-2000), M. Desbiolles (b.1959), who published the novel Anchise (1999), and C. Angot (b.1959), the latter perhaps the more provocative contemporary writer, as can be seen from L’inceste (1999), story of the author’s short homosexual relationship with a mature woman and her incestuous relationship with her father. The cynical and pessimist M. Houellbecq (b.1958) is undoubtedly one of the most innovative writers of the late nineties, even if his novels aroused heated controversy due to the erotic component, often morbid (Le sens du combat, 1996; Interventions, 1998).

Since the mid-eighties there has been the revival of the polar, or the detective genre, to which many writers have used as a springboard. This original development of the genre, inaugurated by J.-P. Manchette (1942-95) had notable representatives in J. Vautrin (b.1933) and FH Fajardie (b.1947). The fiction is linked here to the real setting (the poor suburbs, the large metropolises asphyxiated by traffic) and often draws inspiration from the news, all described with a look full of humanity towards the characters. We still remember JC Izzo (1945-2000), who published a trilogy whose protagonist is the detective Fabio Montale (Total Khéops, 1995; Chourmo, 1996; Solea, 2000), and Léo Malet. An original synthesis was represented by D. Pennac (b.1944) and his quadrilogy centered on the character of Benjamin Malaussène (from Au Bonheur des ogres to Monsieur Malaussène) which met with worldwide success, thus bringing back a forgotten district of Paris (Belleville) and the taste for a story full of humor in a colorful language. Other examples can be found in D. Daeninckx (b.1949), T. Benacquista (La comedia des ratés, 1991), S. Quadruppani (b.1952Rue de la cloche, 1992), D’Ormesson (b.1925) and Ph. Sollers (b. 1936) and D. Picouly (b. 1948), author of the historical novel L’enfant leopard (1999). P. Labro (b. 1936) distinguished himself as a crime film director in the seventies and eighties and later as a novelist. In his works, mainly in the autobiography Quinze anz, un début à Paris (1994) and in Manuella (1999), the difficult transition from childhood to adolescence is narrated, with considerable attention to the often painful psychological implications that this phase entails. Beyond the noir genre, the following deserve mention: J. Echenoz (b. 1947), winner of the 1999 Goncourt prize with the novel Je m’en vais (1999); N. Avril (b. 1939); A. Ernaux (b. 1940), who made his debut in the seventies but found success with the trilogy La place (1982), Une femme (1988) and Passion simple (1992); Ch. Clerc (b. 1942); JM Laclavetine (b.1954), author of the novel Première ligne(1999) set in the publishing world. It should also be noted the success that, since 1994, the works of M. Houellebecq (b. 1958) have enjoyed internationally. Metropolitan reality in all its facets is investigated by JM Gourio in the twelve volumes of Nouvelles bréves de comptoir (1987-2000), stories inspired by real conversations heard by the author in Parisian bars and bistros, written in a colloquial, unadorned language. and devoid of affectation, the same used by P. Djian (b. 1949) in Vers chez les blancs (2000). Autobiographical research is the line that unites the work of J. Roubaud (b.1932), with Le grand incendie de Londres (1989) and La boucle (1993), and H. Guibert (1955-92), who also renounces the subtitle of the definition of “novel”: in the works À l’ami qui ne m’a pas sauvé la vie (1990) and L’homme au chapeau rouge (1992) of the novel the interpretation keys remained, but not the narrative ones; the effect is that of a terrifying and often cruel truth, like reality. By French adoption I am M. Benabou (b.1939), born in Morocco to parents of Jewish origin, A. Maalouf (b.1949), whose historical novels convey a deep sense of tolerance and respect for every culture and tradition., and T. Ben Jelloun (b.1944), which, in addition to describing the loneliness and marginalization of North Africans in France, tackles the problem of racism, establishing connections with the end of the colonial empires.

The problems of immigrants and the difficult living conditions in the suburbs of large cities are also investigated by the sociologist A. Villechaise-Dupont (b. 1971) in the long essay Les gens des grands ensembles (2000). As far as poetry is concerned, new trends emerged that ignored the consecrated masters of the avant-garde such as R. Char (1907-88), P. Emmanuel (1916-84) and Y. Bonnefois (b.1923): to the surviving scholars of the vein lyric thus joined the large group of researchers gathered around the aforementioned magazine Tel Quel and to Change, dedicated to exercises of exasperated expressive tension. Of the next generation, the critic and poet JM Maulpoix (b. 1952) stressed that there is no dominant ideology, program or expressive model in poetry. Poets wish to experience the infinite possibilities offered by the word: their verses refuse to bend to any type of metric scheme, often merging into prose – as happens in the compositions of G. Macé (n.1946) – or abandoning themselves to typical musical suggestions. of the works of M. Messagier (b. 1949). Contempt for sentimentality and the search for beauty in everyday objects are the dominant characteristics of the poetry of F. De Cornière (b. 1950), G. Noiret (b. 1948) and JL Giovannoni (b. 1950). A cold, objective description, almost scientific reality characterized certain French poetry; the best proofs have been given by the aforementioned J. Roubaud, with Quelque chose noir (1986), a work marked by a strong and constant presence of death, the echoes of which are also found in Proses du fils (1993) by Y. Charnet (b.1962): in some tragic situations, poetry becomes the only way to get to a story of oneself. Finally we remember C. Prigent (b. 1945), founder of the literary magazine TXT together with JL Steinmetz (b. 1940); Prigent argues the importance of the poet’s total dedication to his art and the need for renewal through writing. As for the second half of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first one remember M. Duras, A.Blondin, J. d’Ormesson, the Nobel laureate C. Simon, M. Tournier, P. Quignard and D. Pennac, author of extraordinary commercial success.

France Contemporary Literature

Emigration to Chile

Emigration to Chile

Area: 756,102 km²
Residents: 17,574,003 (in 2017)
Population density: 23 E / km²
Form of Government: Republic
System of Government: Presidential democracy
Neighboring countries: Argentina, Peru, Bolivia Coast
length: 6,435 km
Capital: Santiago de Chile National
language: Spanish
69.96 % Roman Catholic,
15% Protestant,
8.5% agnostic,
2.11% members of other Christian churches,
0.92% Mormons,
0.4% Jehovah’s Witnesses,
0.13% Jews
Road network: 80,651 km (right-hand traffic)
Currency: Chilean Peso (CLP)
1 CLP = 100 Centavos
Exchange rates:
1 EUR = 884.85 CLP
100 CLP = 0.11 EUR
1 CHF = 821.28 CLP
100 CLP = 0.12 CHF
(exchange rate from January 16, 2021)
Telephone area code: +56
Time zones: UTC-4
Mains voltage: 220 V
Seasons: are opposite to those of the northern hemisphere

  • Spring: Sep. until Nov.
  • Summer: Dec. to Feb.
  • Autumn: March to May
  • Winter: June to August

In 2020, 220 Germans officially emigrated to Chile and 589 came back to their homeland. Within the 10 years from 2010 to 2019, 4,492 Germans officially emigrated to Chile and 5,382 moved back to Germany. This page gives an overview of the country and immigration. We go into detail on the following pages.

In recent years, the number of immigrants in Chile has been unusually high. Many people are looking for alternatives to their home country, which is no longer an option for them in the long term. Many countries that are particularly attractive for European emigrants are out of the question because the immigration regulations can hardly be fulfilled for most of those interested. Chile is still a pleasant exception here. A successful application for immigration does not require proof of sufficient knowledge of the national language, nor the submission of a medical certificate of health. The requirements to be met are kept within reasonable limits.

With a population of over 17.5 million, Chile ranks first on the Human Development Index within Latin America. Nevertheless, there is some development potential or a need to catch up compared to the leading European countries. The almost 4,300 km long and an average of only 180 km narrow country is a specialty due to its scenic diversity and beauty. Because Chile has a lot to offer: fantastic beaches on the Pacific Ocean, the mountainous region of the Andes (in winter a paradise for skiers), dreamy islands, part of the Antarctic and the Atacama Desert.

Chile not only offers a very attractive landscape with many different climatic zones, but also extremely friendly, open-minded and fun-loving residents. Due to the historical development of the population, Germans in particular are very welcome. They not only appreciate the quality of German products, but also the reliability, determination and punctuality as a special characteristic of Germans. As an immigrant, it is therefore easy to be quickly accepted in the new community.

Chile certainly cannot keep up with the conveniences that you have taken for granted. But you may come across values ​​that you have long believed lost. Precisely because everything is not yet perfect, there are still many options for offering special products and services. Specialists in medical, technical and scientific professions, experts in IT, as well as well-trained craftsmen in all areas are sought in order to meet the growing demands of the economy.

The Chilean state is paving the way for investors to drive the positive development of Chile forward. It is also worth mentioning that retirees of all ages are welcome. There are even special immigration requirements for this target group. When making decisions, it is important to recognize the special position of Chile in Latin America and not to succumb to prejudice.

Immigration overview

Tourist visa

German citizens can enter the country as tourists for 90 days without the need for a consular visa.

Requirements: a passport that is valid beyond the duration of the stay (at least 6 months) and valid return tickets

Emigration to Chile

Other visas

  • Temporary residence visa – “Residentes Temporarios”
  • Student Visa – “Residentes Estudiantes”
  • Visa for foreign workers – “Residentes sujeto a contrato”
  • Permanent visa who has lived two years temporary visas in Chile and can demonstrate livelihood – “Permanencia Definitiva”

Special features and advantages at a glance

  • Quite uncomplicated and free economy
  • Most progressive country in South America
  • Friendly to foreigners, especially towards Germans
  • Good craftsmen and skilled workers are wanted
  • Nuclear power free
  • Cost of living cheap (LHK-I 72.5)
  • Low population density
  • Great variety of flora and fauna
  • Uncomplicated property acquisition
  • Inexpensive immigration
Chile Immigration Regulations

Chile Immigration Regulations

Immigration / immigration

Foreigners can get an immigrant visa in Chile if their activity contributes to the welfare and development of the country. The immigration permit is only granted to members of a professional group that is considered to be in short supply in Chile (e.g. technicians, academics and highly qualified craftsmen) and is issued by the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

If you want to live in Chile for a longer period of time, have copies of your certificates, birth certificates, passport photos and similar documents (or their translation) certified by the Chilean embassy in your country in advance.

Immigration opportunities

Changes in the near future – see article Chile – on the way to a new immigration law

Temporary residence visa “Residentes Temporarios”

This visa is issued to foreigners who have family ties to Chile, as well as foreign investors (e.g. when buying real estate), researchers, scientists, representatives of religious associations and foreign citizens who are posted by foreign companies and act as technical advisors. Registering a trade is enough.


  • Family ties to Chile: spouses with Chilean citizenship, parents or children of Chilean citizenship, ancestors with Chilean citizenship, spouses and children of foreigners residing in Chile, parents of foreigners of legal age residing in Chile
  • Passport with a period of validity for the requested period
  • Medical health certificate showing that the applicant does not have a contagious disease.
  • Criminal record certificate
  • Application, the reason and the period of time as well as personal description of the applicant and information about the place of residence in Chile. If the applicant is married to a Chilean citizen, the spouse must sign the application (it is also advisable to provide the applicant’s telephone number and the date of travel).
  • Proof of income or assets (low income or pension is enough)
  • 3 passport photos

The processing time is approximately four weeks if the applicant pays the fax fee. After the visa has been issued, there is a period of 90 days to enter Chile. The applicant must collect the visa personally at the consulate. The visa is issued for a maximum of one year. In Chile you can apply for a “permanent residence visa”.

Application cost: $ 75

Student visa “Residentes Estudiantes”


  • Confirmation of admission from the university or the training institution recognized by the Chilean state
  • Proof of financing your livelihood (loan and / or scholarship). Otherwise it must be proven that sufficient means are available to cover the cost of living (proof of income, bank balance, etc.)
  • Affidavit on the basis of which the parents affirm that they will pay for the living costs
  • Passport with a period of validity for the requested period
  • Medical certificate showing that the applicant does not have a contagious disease
  • Criminal record certificate
  • 3 passport photos

The visa is only issued for a maximum of one year. The visa can be extended in Chile. It is not allowed to pursue an employment relationship with a student visa. After the visa has been issued, there is a period of 90 days to enter Chile. The applicant must collect the visa personally at the consulate.

Application cost: $ 75

Visa for foreign workers “Residentes sujeto a contrato” – Contractually obliged foreigners


  • The employment contract
  • Passport with a period of validity for the requested period
  • Medical health certificate stating that the applicant does not have a contagious disease
  • Criminal record certificate
  • Application, the reason and the period of time as well as personal description of the applicant and information about the place of residence in Chile. If the applicant is married to a Chilean citizen, the spouse must sign the application (it is also advisable to provide the applicant’s telephone number and the date of travel)
  • Proof of income and assets

Application cost: $ 75

The employment contract must be signed by the employer in the presence of a notary in Chile and legalized by the Ministry of Foreign Relations. If the contract was signed only by the employer, then the applicant must sign the document in the presence of the Consul of Chile. The applicant must hand over all other documents to the consulate in advance.

The visa is issued for a maximum of two years. If you wish to remain in Chile after two years, you can apply for a permanent residence visa (“Permanencia Definitiva”). After the visa has been issued, there is a period of 90 days to enter Chile. The applicant must collect the visa personally at the consulate.

Further visa options are:

  • “Residentes Oficiales” – diplomats and officials
  • “Asilados Politicos y Refugiados” – political asylum seekers and refugees
  • “Permanencia Definitiva” – permanent residence

Help with immigration

Atalah and Binfa law firm

Mrs. Dr. Monika Broecking works as a German lawyer for the Chilean law firm Atalah and Binfa. She is responsible for the German and English speaking clientele. The firm is based in Pucon, Region IX.

In addition to the legal area, she can bring her many years of experience in Germany as a bank manager, in marketing and as an independent corporate and personnel consultant. In New Zealand, with her company ECC European Consulting Company, she has placed immigrants mainly from Europe in jobs in New Zealand and has worked hand in hand with immigration consultants. She now lives in Chile and brings her extensive professional and private experience as an immigrant to two countries to the advice of her clients.

Miss Dr. Broecking advises on all types of visa applications for Chile, permanent residence permit, application for citizenship, purchase of real estate, investments, assistance in dealing with banks and insurance companies, as well as Germans resident in Chile on legal questions affecting Chile and / or Germany. If you have any initial questions, please contact her free of charge: [email protected]

Atalah y Binfa Abogados
Dr. Monika Broecking
General Urrutia 283 of 47
Pucón / Región de la Araucanía
Tel.: (45) 2441679 / (9) 9 2991742

Move to Chile

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Chile Immigration Regulations

Cost of Living in Denmark

Cost of Living in Denmark

The cost of living is around a quarter to a third higher than in Germany. Copenhagen is one of the most expensive cities in the world. Smaller cities and rural areas are much cheaper.

You would need around € 5,130.05 in Copenhagen to maintain the same standard of living that you could have in Berlin with € 3,700.00 (assuming you rent in both cities).

  • Consumer prices in Copenhagen are 34.74% higher than in Berlin (excluding rent)
  • Consumer prices including rent in Copenhagen are 38.65% higher than in Berlin
  • Rental prices in Copenhagen are 47.25% higher than in Berlin
  • Restaurant prices in Copenhagen are 75.07% higher than in Berlin
  • Food prices in Copenhagen are 28.93% higher than in Berlin
  • The local purchasing power in Copenhagen is 8.70% lower than in Berlin

Average cost of living in Copenhagen (from 06/2020 – 05/2021)

Restaurant Ø € Price € Price from / to
Food, price w. restaurant 17.82 12.10-26.90
Middle class, 3 courses for 2 people. 94.14 65.69-161.38
Local beer, 0.5 l 6.72 4.11 – 8.07
Imported beer, 0.33 l 5.44 5.37-8.07
cappuccino 5.21 3.28 – 6.72
Coca / Pepsi (0.33 l) 3.27 2.00-5.38
Water (0.33 l) 2.60 1.61-4.00
Food Ø € Price € Price from / to
Milk (1 L) 1.33 1.14-1.75
White bread (500g) 2.81 1.34-5.38
Rice (white), (1kg) 2.18 0.94-3.36
Eggs (12) 3.58 2.39-4.84
Local cheese (1kg) 13.00 6.72-34.97
Chicken breast fillet (1kg) 8.52 4.71-12.28
Beef (1kg) 13.27 7.40-22.06
Apples (1kg) 2.63 1.34-4.03
Bananas (1kg) 2.59 1.34-4.03
Oranges (1kg) 2.69 1.34-4.03
Tomatoes (1kg) 4.22 2.62 – 6.72
Potatoes (1kg) 1.89 1.08-2.69
Onions (1kg) 1.44 1.08-2.69
Lettuce (1 head) 1.57 1.34-2.42
Water (1.5 l) 1.16 0.47-2.69
Bottle of wine (middle class) 8.07 5.38-13.45
Local beer (0.5 l) 1.60 0.82-2.69
Imported beer (0.33 l) 2.17 1.34-3.36

Average costs for local transport, utilities, clothing, leisure, education in Copenhagen (from 06/2020 – 05/2021)

Mode of Transport Ø € Price € Price from / to
One-time ticket 3.23 2.02-4.84
Monthly pass 80.69 58.50-107.59
Taxi base amount 6.72 4.71-10.09
Taxi 1 km 1.87 1.21-2.69
Ancillary housing costs Ø € Price € Price from / to
for 85 sqm apartment (electricity, water, garbage, etc. 179.33 105.52-403.46
1 minute prepaid mobile tariff 0.15 0.05-0.16
Internet (60 Mbps or more, unlimited data, cable / ADSL) 33.60 20.17-53.79
Clothes, shoes Ø € Price € Price from / to
Jeans (Levis 501 or similar) 103.32 53.79-134.49
Summer dress (Zara, H&M,… 42.94 17.35-67.24
Nike sports shoes, middle class 111.30 67.24-161.38
Leather business shoes 163.09 107.59-201.73
leisure time Ø € Price € Price from / to
Fitness center, month / adult 38.60 20.17-53.79
Tennis, 1 hour on weekends 30.15 20.15-45.72
a movie ticket 16.14 13.45-20.17
training Ø € Price € Price from / to
Preschool / Kindergarten, private, whole day, monthly per child 417.63 309.32-511.04
International primary school per year and child 11,930.71 4,034.56-20,172.78

Average rental prices / purchase and salaries in Copenhagen (from 06/2020 – 05/2021)

Monthly rental price Ø € Price € Price from / to
Apartment (1 bedroom) in the city center 1,426.62 941.40-1882.79
Apartment (1 bedroom) outside the center 1..120.30 672.43-1,546.58
Apartment (3 bedrooms) in the city center 2,425.06 1,990.38-3,362.13
Apartment (3 bedrooms) outside the center 1,910.59 1,479.34 – 2,420.73
Purchase price of apartments Ø € Price € Price from / to
Price per square meter for an apartment in the city – purchase 6,717.06 5,648.38-8,069.11
Price per square meter – apartment outside the center – purchase 4,668.41 3,765.59-5,782.86
wages Ø € Price € Price from / to
Average monthly salary (after taxes) 3,215.38

Move to Denmark

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Emigration and Living Denmark – Conclusion

High standard of living, proximity to Germany, many opportunities to find a job, high immigrant satisfaction, peaceful, relatively safe from natural disasters, free of nuclear power, many speak German in North Schleswig. However, one should have a good command of DanishThis is about an experience of a German student who emigrated to Denmark to study.

General provisions for travel and residence (until the corona pandemic)

If you are German, Austrian or Swiss, you can stay in Denmark for up to 90 days without a visa. You can enter the country with your identity card or with a passport. Please note that the travel documents are valid for at least 3 months longer than the planned departure time if you continue your journey to Greenland or the Faroe Islands. Children need their own travel documents.

If your stay is not just about vacation, but you would like to explore Denmark as your future adopted home, there is the possibility to initially stay cheaply in a holiday home or holiday apartment (Denmark in a holiday home). A recommended address for a holiday home in Lökken is Interhome. This saves you unnecessarily high costs for a house or a rental apartment. In order to extend your stay to 6 months, you need to register with the residents’ registration office.

You will be granted a residence permit for more than 6 months if you can provide evidence of an employment contract or – in the case of self-employed work – corresponding evidence of this. You can apply for a Danish residence or work permit online at

Speaking Danish is an advantage when immigrating to Denmark. Take enough time to learn Danish at home. You can find more information about Danish courses on the website of the Danish Embassy.

Test here for free how well you speak and understand Danish (takes about 3 minutes).

If you are looking for a suitable apartment to rent, you will surely find it on the BoligPortal. It has existed for 20 years and is Denmark’s largest rental property platform. A special service of the portal is that it calls every landlord personally, which means that there are no spam or fake ads.

Cost of Living in Denmark

Current Emigration to Denmark

Current Emigration to Denmark


Area: 42,921 km²
Residents: 5,748,769 (2018)
Population density: 134 E / km²
Form of Government: Parliamentary hereditary monarchy
System of Government: Parliamentary democracy
Neighboring countries: Sweden, Germany
Capital: Copenhagen National
Language: Danish
81.5% Protestant,
3% Muslim,
0, 6% Catholics,
0.26% Jehovah’s Witnesses
Currency: Danish krone (DKK)
1 Danish krone = 100 ore
Exchange rates:
1 EUR = 7.44 DKK
1 DKK = 0.13 EUR
1 CHF = 6.85 DKK
1 DKK = 0.15 CHF
(rate from 13.07.2021)
Telephone area code: +45
Time zone: UTC +1

In 2020, 1,479 Germans officially emigrated to Denmark and 785 came back to their homeland. Within the 10 years from 2010 to 2019, 12,708 Germans officially emigrated to Denmark and 8,445 moved back to Germany. This landed this coastal country on the remarkable 6th place on the satisfaction list of all emigration destinations. In 2020 there were officially 26,135 Germans living in Denmark, most of them on the border with Germany.

In 2017, 11.5% of the population was born abroad. Most come from Scandinavian countries, followed by immigrants from Turkey and Eastern Europe. The official language is Danish. German is recognized as the only minority language. Dialects such as Sønderjysk and Bornholmsk are spoken in some parts of the country. English is the most important foreign language in Denmark, but French still has some influence. About 90% of the students learn German as a second foreign language at least temporarily.

Denmark is divided into the following five regions with a total of 98 municipalities: Nordjylland (Northern Jutland and the islands of Vendsyssel-Thy, Mors and Læsø), Midtjylland (central part of Jutland), Syddanmark (south of Jutland and the island of Funen), Hovedstaden (northeast Zealand with the capital Copenhagen and the island Bornholm) and Sjælland (large part of the island Sjælland and the islands Lolland, Falster and Møn).

The economic upswing and reforms on the labor market have led to a sharp decline in unemployment since the mid-1990s. The country is climatically very balanced; not too hot summers, but mild winters due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. Due to the islands and the rugged bays, Denmark has a relatively long coastline of 7,314 km.

Work – job offer

Perhaps things are not going as well as one is used to in the Danish labor market, the job satisfaction rate, but it is among the highest in Europe. Denmark’s labor market combines flexibility with social security for all workers. Everyday work is characterized by flat hierarchies, teamwork and relaxed, friendly cooperation.

All Danish employers are legally obliged to provide you with an employment contract. You are entitled to a contract if you have been employed for at least one month and more than eight hours a week.

Denmark has one of the highest wages in the EU. However, these are reduced to a moderate level by high taxes. In many cases it is easy to get a job because there are no bureaucratic hurdles and you do not need a work permit. It should be noted, however, that not all German training courses are recognized here. Before starting work, you should apply for a tax card (e-tax card) from the responsible tax authority. If you do not do this, the employer pays a tax of 60%.

Everyone who works in Denmark pays income tax. To ensure this, it is necessary to apply for an electronic tax card from the Danish Customs and Tax Administration (SKAT). Without this tax card, the employer will automatically deduct 55 percent tax from your salary. You can find more detailed information on applying for the tax card at

As an EU, EEA or Swiss citizen, the step into self-employment is made easy. To do this, you need to register your company with the Danish Commerce and Companies Agency. You can do this online at (this page only exists in Danish).

There is a particular need for skilled workers in the catering, agriculture and healthcare sectors. Craftsmen, construction workers and engineers are also wanted. The employment office or the central office for job placement and the European Employment Services (Eures) can help with the job search.

If you pay into Denmark’s unemployment fund yourself, you can also take advantage of Denmark’s extensive unemployment insurance, as the following graphic shows (unfortunately only in English at the moment). If you click on the graphic, you will find more information in English on the website.

As in Germany, there is a statutory health insurance requirement in Denmark if you have a job. In comparison to Germany, however, Denmark only has state health insurance. To take advantage of this, you should register with the residents’ registration office as soon as possible and apply for a health insurance card. Since the exhibition can take some time, you should cover yourself with a foreign health insurance for the transition period.

Homeschooling, homeschooling, free learning

An increasingly popular alternative to normal school attendance is homeschooling (home tuition or home tuition) or free learning (unschooling). In Denmark, home schooling is legally controlled by the school as an alternative to the compulsory public school system. Inspections are mandatory every year unless specific arrangements have been made.

One possibility to be examined is to have the children taught at home in German by the Wilhelm von Humboldt Online Private School. This means that children can be taught according to the German curriculum by teachers who are accredited in Germany and thus be prepared for the secondary school leaving certificate and the Abitur – information HERE.

Current Emigration to Denmark

Central America Business

Central America Business

The level of economic development in the individual countries is very different. The Caribbean island states achieve the highest incomes: With a gross national income (GNI) per capita of US $ 21,310 (2015), the Bahamas are at the forefront thanks to lively tourism and internationally networked financial services. With a GNI of (2015) US $ 12,050 per inhabitant, Panama is at the top of the Central American countries. In contrast, Haiti, with a GNI per capita of US $ 880, is not only one of the poorest countries in Central America, but also in the world.

Tropical agriculture with the cultivation of sugar cane, bananas, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, pineapples, sisalagaves, cotton, spices and citrus fruits is still the main livelihood of the population in some states in Central America and West India (including Haiti, Nicaragua). It is largely determined by the plantation economy, which dates back to the colonial era and which in some cases expanded in the 20th century. Coffee is an important export item for almost all Central American countries. Bananas are mainly grown in Mexico, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Honduras. After the Second World War, Cuba lost its leading role in the cultivation of sugar cane; Although it has one of the largest cultivation areas in the world, its production share is only a few percent today. Shrimp and others

The main mineral resources are crude oil (Mexico, Trinidad), iron, copper, manganese ores (Cuba, Mexico) and bauxite (Jamaica, Hispaniola). The largest silver deposits in Central America are in Mexico, which is the world’s number one in terms of silver production (2014: 5,766 t).

The degree of industrialization varies greatly from country to country: industry, including mining, contributed around a quarter of GDP on average; in Mexico it was 32.7% (2015). The country has a differentiated and highly developed industrial structure and, due to its size, has a special economic position. Mexico is part of the North American Freetrade Agreement [NAFTA], which came into force in 1994. Trinidad and Tobago also plays a special role (44.0% of GDP is generated in the secondary sector) with its significant oil production and processing. On the West Indies, which are dominated by the service sector (e.g. Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia), less than 15% of GDP is generated in the manufacturing sector.

According to COUNTRYAAH.COM, the most important trading partners of almost all countries in Central America are still the USA and the EU; These two economic areas account for over two thirds of total foreign trade. Trade with China is also gaining importance in this region of the world. Trade between the states of Central America is to be strengthened or liberalized through various cooperation agreements. B. Caribbean Community, Latin American Economic System, CAFTA (Central America Free Trade Agreement). The economic objectives of these agreements have so far only partially been achieved. Tourism is of growing importance, especially in the area of ​​the West Indies in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Jamaica and Barbados as well as in Mexico.

Transport: Mexico has the longest rail network in Central America (approx. 26,700 km). The road network has been greatly expanded since the early 1960s, but it is still very sketchy. The most important connections are sections of the Panamerican Highway in north-south direction. The Panama Canal is of crucial importance for international maritime traffic between the Atlantic and Pacific. The majority of the tonnage of the merchant fleets is therefore attributable to Panama, which, however, is one of the countries with the flags of convenience due to its open shipping register and thus occupies a special position.

Central America Business


The oldest evidence of settlement in Central America (Paleo-Indian period) comes from the Mexican site of Tlapacoya (around 20,000 BC). During this time, the South American area ( America). From about 7,300 BC. The cultivation of cultivated plants can be proven. In the archaic period (8,000–2,500 BC) it can be seen as early as 7,300 BC. Chr. In Oaxaca the cultivation of pumpkins, from 6 500 the cultivation of chillies and avocados prove. The cultivation of maize was particularly important (from 3,500 BC, in the valley of Tehuacán, possibly even earlier). Dating problems arise from the fact that wild forms are difficult to distinguish from cultivated forms. At the same time, the first permanent settlements were formed. The first clay vessels date from around 2,500 BC. BC (Mexico, a little later Belize). From 2,000 B.C. High cultural developments can be observed in Central America, beginning with the Olmecs ( Mesoamerican high cultures ).

History: ( Latin America ).

Central America: state structure (2015)
Country Form of government Area (in km 2 ) Ew. (in 1,000) capital city
Antigua and Barbuda Monarchy 1) 440 91.8 Saint John’s
Bahamas Monarchy 1) 13 880 388.0 Nassau
Barbados Monarchy 1) 430 284.2 Bridgetown
Belize Monarchy 1) 22 970 359.3 Belmopan
Costa Rica republic 51 100 4,807.8 San Jose
Dominica republic 750 72.7 Roseau
Dominican. republic republic 48 670 10 528.4 Santo Domingo
El Salvador republic 21 040 6 126.6 San Salvador
Grenada Monarchy 1) 340 106.8 Saint George’s
Guatemala republic 108 890 16,342.9 Guatemala
Haiti republic 27 750 10 711.1 Port-au-Prince
Honduras republic 112 490 8 075.1 Tegucigalpa
Jamaica Monarchy 1) 10 990 2,725.9 Kingston
Cuba republic 109 890 11 389.6 Havana
Mexico republic 1 964 380 127 017.2 Mexico
Nicaragua republic 130 370 6,082.0 Managua
Panama republic 75 420 3,929.1 Panama
Saint Kitts and Nevis Monarchy 1) 2350 55.6 Basseterre
Saint Lucia Monarchy 1) 620 185.0 Castries
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Monarchy 1) 390 109.5 Kingstown
Trinidad and Tobago republic 5 130 1,360.1 Port of Spain
1) Parliamentary monarchy.

Colonial History of North America

Colonial History of North America

North America borders the Arctic Ocean in the north (latitude 83 ° 07 ′ north, northernmost point of Canada on Ellesmere Island; northernmost point Greenland: latitude 83 ° 39 ′ north), in the east it is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. A physical-geographic southern border of North America is often drawn in the area of the isthmus of Tehuantepec, i.e. within Mexico, but culturally Mexico belongs to Latin America. Excluding Mexico, the southernmost point of North America is the southern tip of Florida (25 ° 07 ′north latitude). The distance between the northernmost point on Ellesmere Island and the border with Mexico is around 6,500 km, the east-west extension about the latitude of the island of Newfoundland around 5,500 km as the crow flies. North America has a share of eight time zones.


In addition to Spain, which had initially brought Florida, Mexico and the southwest into its possession, there were mainly Great Britain (including New England) and France (Louisiana) as well as initially the Netherlands (New Netherlands), Sweden (New Sweden) and partly Russia (Alaska) involved in colonization; according to COUNTRYAAH.COM, this had a profound effect on the North American indigenous people. The Indians, involved in colonial rivalries (especially in the Anglo-French struggles in which they took part on both sides), were increasingly displaced from their territories and decimated by wars. On the other hand, the civilizing effect of the European settlement receded strongly (mission attempts, trade, taking over the horse from the Spaniards). From the beginning, the Indians resisted land grabbing and disenfranchisement.

In the 18th century, the dominant position of the British colonies on the east coast, which gradually reached as far as the Appalachians, was secured against the Spanish possessions in the south with the takeover of the two Carolinas (1720/29) and the establishment of Georgia (1732/33) as a defensive border colony. Three regions emerged: 1) New England with its almost entirely English population living in townships (Town) settled, was strongly oriented towards trade and industry and had a high level of education; 2) the Central Atlantic colonies with a strong Dutch-German and Irish-Scottish population, large and medium-sized agricultural holdings and also considerable trade interests; 3) the colonies stretching south from Maryland, in which plantation ownership and monocultures (tobacco, rice, cotton, indigo) predominated and slavery added a strong non-English element to the population.

Although consistently dependent on the British crown or owners (Maryland, Pennsylvania) and thus subject to the central government (Board of Trade) policy aimed at the benefit of the motherland, all colonies achieved a high degree of self-government, with the chambers of representatives of the colonial parliaments becoming increasingly self-confident expanded their position in the political system analogous to that of the British House of Commons. The residents developed an American sense of togetherness; but in 1754 a union of the colonies failed at the Albany Congress. British-French battles over the Ohio Valley triggered the “French and Indian War” (1754–63), which culminated in the conflict of the Seven Years’ War.

Tensions arose from the efforts of the motherland to keep the colonies dependent as suppliers of raw materials and markets for finished goods, but to use them for the defense and administrative burdens (State Revenue Law “Sugar Act”, 1764; stamp duty, 1765; Townshend Acts, 1767 ; Zwangsgesetze, 1774) and their expansion west of the Alleghenies not to be allowed for the time being. Since the colonies had reached a certain maturity in terms of social development, the French threat, if not that of the Indians (“Pontiacs Rebellion”, 1763–66), had ceased in 1763 and provocations on both sides were inevitable (customs policy, Boston Tea Party), the constitutional dispute over the right to tax (“no taxation without representation”) soon led to the independence movement.

The further development of North America was due to the establishment and rapid expansion of the United States of America at the expense of British (1783, Northwest Territory), French (1803 purchase of Louisiana ) and Spanish (1819, Florida), through the establishment of territorial claims in the far Northwest (Oregon) and Winning in the Southwest (1845–48, Mexican War, Texas ; 1853 Gadsden Treaty). The Russian interests (Alaska, seal fishing, East Asia trade) were contractually agreed in 1824 on the northwest coast north of 54 ° 40 ′limited and ended in 1867 with the sale of Alaska to the United States. The rival advance of Canadian and American settlers to the west made it necessary to define borders several times (1818, 1846). In the north of the USA, Canada developed into an independent nation based on the English and French population, which, despite the economic and cultural attraction of the USA, remained part of the Commonwealth.

History of North America

Europe Environment

Europe Environment

The continent’s long anthropic history has left an unmistakable mark on the European environmental balance. Although there are several natural parks which, since the beginning of the 21st century, have aimed to preserve increasingly precarious natural habitats, only at the northern extremities (Scandinavian Peninsula) and eastern (the great Russian plain) are there totally uncontaminated environments. Deforestation threatened Europe before any other area in the world due to early industrialization and, to this day, there are areas, such as Ireland, where the original forest has almost disappeared. On the other hand, starting from the end of the twentieth century, the growing political and cultural sensitivity to environmental issues has produced a reversal of the trend; hence greater attention to the protection of what has remained after centuries of intense exploitation and attempts to protect and repopulate some regions of the continent with native species. This increased sensitivity to environmental issues was one of the secondary effects of the EU enlargement process, which also works to “harmonize” the environmental policies of the member countries. Process, to be honest, characterized by continuous setbacks due above all to the difficulty of reconciling particular interests (those detectable on a national scale, relating to the impact of global decisions on within the individual States) with collective interests (the European dimension of the measures) as well as those of the short and long term (investments in technologies that will bring results only in the long distance in the face of costs and commitments to be incurred by implementing policies with a strong impact on the present). An example of this is the Copenhagen Summit (2009), during which the world was able to observe with how little strength and cohesion the Union manages to make its voice heard in international fora and how difficult it is to identify common positions to support. with conviction. Despite this the Union is able to make its voice heard in international fora and how difficult it is to identify common positions to be supported with conviction. See COUNTRYAAH.COM for more information about Western Europe.

Despite this the Union is able to make its voice heard in international fora and how difficult it is to identify common positions to be supported with conviction. Despite this the green economy it presents itself as a real challenge for the development models of the Old Continent, both from a purely economic point of view and, above all, from the environmental side. In December 2008, the EU approved the so-called “20-20-20 Strategy”, which is a package of policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and total energy consumption by 20% by 2020, as well as, by the same date, produce at least 20% of the energy from renewable sources. Since the seventies of the twentieth century, particular attention has been paid to the protection of river waters. The illustrative case is that of the Thames, a literally “dead” river already at the end of the nineteenth century which, thanks to the repopulation process it has undergone, has seen the return of previously disappeared species, such as seals and dolphins. The many kilometers of coastline that border the continent and the overlooking marine environments have also deserved renewed attention. There are over 120 protected areas, of which 50 approx. they are completely marine. Among the various initiatives, the establishment of a “sanctuary” in the sea between Italy, France and the Principality of Monaco, made possible thanks to an agreement between the three states, has taken on particular importance. In this wide arm of the sea there are therefore new and severe rules that prohibit the hunting of cetaceans such as the France and the Principality of Monaco, made possible thanks to an agreement between the three states. In this wide arm of the sea there are therefore new and severe rules that prohibit the hunting of cetaceans such as the France and the Principality of Monaco, made possible thanks to an agreement between the three states. In this wide arm of the sea there are therefore new and severe rules that prohibit the hunting of cetaceans such as the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) or the sperm whale (Physeter catodon). Nonetheless, uncontrolled fishing to which some species are subjected, such as bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), endangered. Precisely on this species, for several years, the governments of the Mediterranean countries, although called to take clear positions, have maintained ambiguous attitudes that attract them harsh criticism from environmentalists. Despite the transformations taking place in the European economy and the ever lower weight assumed by manufacturing processes in the chemical and steel sectors, the continent continues to pay for the high rate of industrialization, no less than the consumerism adopted as a habit by now in almost everyone. the countries that make it up. Hence two of the main unresolved issues on the European agenda in terms of environmental protection: air quality (seriously compromised in some areas such as, for example, the Po Valley in Italy) and waste disposal.

Europe Environment