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Canyon de Chelly National Monument – Arizona

Canyon de Chelly National Monument – Arizona

Indian ruin site

In 1931, Arizona ‘s Canyon de Chelly National Monument was established by then-US President Hoover to protect the area’s archaeologically significant ruins. The size of the protected area is 340 km². The region is said to have been inhabited by people 4,500 years ago. Today, the entire area belongs to the Navajo Native Americans. Canyon de Chelly National Monument is administered by the Navajo people in conjunction with the National Park Service. Today about 40 families live in the canyon from agriculture and tourism. About 850,000 tourists visit the “De Chelly Canyon” every year.

Native American White House ruins

Branched canyon system

Canyon de Chelly Conservation Area is located between Monument Valley and Petrified Forest National Park in northeastern Arizona. Overall, Canyon de Chelly National Monument includes four deep canyons in an otherwise relatively flat landscape. The four large canyons have further branching side canyons. The most important are the Canyon del Muerto with a length of about 29 km, the main canyon de Chelly has a length of 42 km. The Monument Canyon with 16 km and the Black Canyon are also important.

Well-visited monument in Arizona

According to liuxers, the canyon itself may only be entered in the company of a Navajo guide. The exception is the visit to the White House Ruins at the Cliff Dwellings. If you can afford it, you should visit the canyons in autumn or spring. In summer it is quite hot at the edge of the canyons and overall the reserve is overrun with tourists in summer. Canyon de Chelly National Monument is open year-round. Entrance fees are not charged. Snapshots of private Navajo settlements or people can be taken upon request and a small donation.

Canyon de Chelly, Arizona

Green oases in the canyons

The walls of the canyons drop mostly steeply down to a depth of 300 meters. The meandering and gently flowing Chinle Creek flows through the bottom of the canyons and made possible the agricultural use of the region in earlier times. Even in very dry years, the soil has a certain basic moisture content. At the bottom of the gorges there are green and fertile soils here and there. Even today, the Navajo Native Americans use these green oases for agriculture.

The Anasazi and their successors

From the vantage points you can see the ruins of the ancient Anasazi settlement. They built their dwellings in the natural niches of the rock faces. After the Anasazi, Hopi peoples came to the region. Ultimately, the Navajo settled in the Canyon de Chelly area in the early 1800’s.

Spider Woman?

The Visitor Center is located near the village of Chinle. Maps and information about Canyon de Chelly National Monument are available there. In the Visitor Center, the settlement history of the canyons is illustrated and explained. A path usually leads along the edge of the canyon and leads to various viewpoints along the canyon. Well known is the Spider Rock, which has the shape of a rock needle. It is said that strange things happen there. That’s where Spider Woman is said to live, who fetches and eats disobedient children. There is also an easy trail through the canyons themselves.

Spider Rock in Canyon de Chelly

By car through the gorges

The canyons can be driven in off-road vehicles, but this is subject to a fee for visitors and only possible when accompanied by a Navajo. You then drive past scattered settlements and the ruins and artifacts of the Canyon’s former inhabitants. Visiting the canyons may be prohibited at high tide, eg after heavy downpours.

Camping at the Cottonwood Campground

There is also a campsite near the visitor center. The free campsite, the Cottonwood Campground, is very basic. It has numerous parking spaces, showers are not available there. Sometimes stray dogs run around on the area, but they are mostly harmless.

Canyon de Chelly National Monument

Olympic National Park – Washington

Olympic National Park – Washington

High mountains, rainforest and coast

According to Acronymmonster, Olympic National Park is located in western Washington state. The Olympic National Park was established in 1938 and was declared a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1976. The sanctuary is located on Washington State ‘s Olympic Peninsula. North of the peninsula is neighboring Canada. Towards the western coast of the peninsula, the national park is joined by the Olympic National Forest, which reaches down to the sea. The Olympic National Park became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981. Up to three million tourists come to the unique protected area in the north-west of the USA every year. The size of the Olympic National Park is 3,734 km².

Lake Crescent in Olympic National Park

Ecosystems in Olympic National Park

There are numerous biotope types and different ecosystems to discover in Olympic National Park in western Washington State. Around the mountain region there are extensive forest areas with a rich flora and fauna. The coastal region is mostly covered in fog, the rocks on the coast are very rugged. The approximately 100 km long Pacific coast of the national park is literally strewn with driftwood. Swimming in the sea here is like a test of courage, since the water of the Pacific is very cold there. Beyond the immediate coastal area is an extensive coastal temperate rainforest,which is mostly shrouded in fog, at least near the coast. There are small and larger rocky islands in many places off the coast. Some of them are true bird paradises.

Flora and fauna

The national park’s largest mammals are moose, Roosevelt elk, and mule deer. Bobcats, cougars, coyotes and black bears also roam the region. The diversity of flora and fauna, some of which are only found endemic in the Olympic National Park, is very large overall. The different climate zones and ecosystems range from the high mountains of the Olympic Mountains to regions with extremely humid coastal fog rainforests to untouched special biotopes on the beach of the Olympic National Forest on the Pacific. The bird world is to be regarded as particularly rich in species and worthy of protection.

Glaciers, plenty of water and nature

The heart of the Olympic Conservation Area is formed by the high Olympic Mountains. with Mount Olympus. Numerous glaciers can be found in this high mountain region. During the summer, icy mountain streams of meltwater tumble down and irrigate the plains. The entire Olympic Peninsula can be described as very rich in water; countless rivers and streams drain the region. The Olympic Peninsula is considered the rainiest region in the USA. The more than sixty glaciers in the national park have formed a rocky landscape through their water drainage, which directs the water into the valleys towards the sea. The wildest and most beautiful streams and waterfalls can be found along the Olympic Peninsula Waterfall Trail. The Quinault Rainforest Loop is a 45-kilometer loop around Lake Quinault. This trail is highly recommended for nature lovers; as there is a good chance of seeing animals such as bald eagles, moose, deer and maybe black bears.

The humid Hoh Rain Forest – mosses and ferns in Olympic National Park

Hoh Rain Forest – rain forest

In this very humid forest area of ​​the Olympic National Park you will find huge trees that are up to 500 years old. The largely originally preserved coastal rainforest is a popular destination for tourists. The forest floor is literally littered and shrouded in deadwood and moss, lichen and ferns. Forest fires are very rare here due to the high humidity of this ecosystem. Due to the high humidity, long moss beards have formed on the branches of the trees, a habitat for countless microorganisms. The hemlock is common here. The Hoh River, fed by melting glaciers, flows through the rainforest. The Hoh Rain Forestreceives copious amounts of rain during the winter months. A year-round 72-site campground is located at Hoh Rain Forest. The Hall of Moses Trail, Spruce Nature Trail, Hoh Lake Trail and the longer Hoh River Trail lead through the temperate rainforest.

Colorful starfish on Shi Shi Beach at low tide in Olympic National Park

Some of the numerous highlights in the national park

Lake Crescent is a rather lonely lake in the national park. Those looking for peace and relaxation should visit the Lake Crescent region. Hurricane Ridge is a plateau, or rather, a lush green and colorful mountain meadow (alm) in spring and summer. In the summer, countless colorful wildflowers and herbs grow there, providing food for the numerous insects and pleasing to the human eye. If you are lucky, you may spot deer, marmots or even black bears while hiking through the region. Sol Duc Hot Springs has hot springs that may be used for bathing. Kalaloch Beachis an approximately 50 km long sandy beach on the Pacific. Many tourists stay mainly in this area of ​​the national park. The bird world and the life on the water and under water is particularly rich here. You don’t come here for swimming, but rather for the spectacular sunsets.

Olympic National Park

Balboa Park, San Diego

Balboa Park, San Diego

Balboa park

Balboa Park (San Diego, USA): detailed description, address and photo. Opportunities for sports and recreation, infrastructure, cafes and restaurants in the park. Reviews of tourists.

Balboa Park is a giant (490 ha) urban cultural park in San Diego, full of recreational areas, natural greenery, flower beds, gardens, paths, and numerous cultural facilities. It houses several museums and theaters, as well as the world-famous San Diego Zoo. In addition, the park has several outdoor leisure and sports outlets, as well as restaurants. To be honest, if you seriously set out to inspect everything that is here, in its entirety, then a week will not be enough.

The area that the park occupies was allocated for it in 1835, which makes it one of the oldest public parks in the United States. The park got its name in honor of the Spanish navigator and explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa. In 1977, the park itself and the historical buildings that were built in it for the Panama-California exhibition of 1915-1916. and the California Pacific International Exposition of 1935-1936 were declared National Landmarks. See anycountyprivateschools for Kansas state information and business schools.

To be honest, if you seriously set out to inspect everything that is here, in its entirety, then a week will not be enough.

Balboa Park is considered one of the main attractions not only of the city, but of the entire region. Here you can see many old and sometimes rare plants, many of which were planted by the famous American landscape designer, botanist and gardener Keith Sessions.

El Prado runs through the center of the park – a long, wide boulevard with a promenade. Most of the buildings that adorn it were built in the Spanish Colonial Revival style. It is on El Prado that most of the park museums and cultural centers are located. In addition, there is a reflection pond and a beautiful fountain.

The Marston House garden surrounds the George Washington Estate, a historic building that today houses a museum.

Even if you just list everything that is in this park without going into details, you get an impressive paragraph. It has a botanical garden, Japanese Friendship Garden, old 1935 cactus garden, Alcazar Garden, Australian Garden, California National Plant Garden, Casa del Rey Moro Garden, George Washington Nursery Ethnobotanical Garden, Desert Garden, Florida Canyon National Plant Reserve, Inez Grant Parker Memorial Rose Garden, Marston House Garden, Palm Canyon, Health Plant Garden, Veterans Memorial Garden and Zoro Garden.

The list of museums in Balboa Park is hardly less impressive than the list of gardens. Home to the Aerospace Museum, Art Museum, Automobile Museum, Hall of Champions, Natural History Museum, Museum of Photography, Timken Art Museum, Veterans Museum, George Washington Marston House, Museum of Living Artists, San Diego Museum of Man, Railroad Museum Modeling in San Diego, Minguey International Museum, Cultural Center de la Raza, Reuben Fleet Science Center, and San Diego Historical Center.

Zoro’s Garden is a sunken garden named after Zarathustra. It was originally built for the exhibition of 1915-1916, and during the exhibition of 1935-1936. the famous naturist colony Zoro was located here. The garden now houses a butterfly garden.

Finally, in addition to all of the above, the park is home to the San Diego Zoo, the old Globe Theatre, Mary Hitchcock Marionette Theatre, Spreckels Organ Pavilion, Starlight Open Air Theatre, Balboa Stadium, WorldBeat Cultural Center, carousel and a children’s railway.

The Spreckels organ pavilion was built for the 1915 exhibition, and in 2002 its organ was enlarged for the last time, so that it now has more than 4,500 pipes. Free organ concerts are held every Sunday in the pavilion, and on Monday evenings during the summer, the pavilion hosts the Spreckels International Summer Organ Festival.

Practical Information

The park is almost square and is located in the very center of the city. It adjoins Sixth Avenue to the west, Apas Street to the north, 28th Street to the east, and Russ Boulevard to the south. Balboa Park is so large that several freeways pass through it: for example, Highway 163 was built through Cabrillo Canyon in 1948 (it runs under the Cabrillo Bridge) – and this section of the highway is considered one of the most beautiful park roads in the state. The main entrance to the park is just located on the Cabrillo bridge.

In addition, a section of Interstate 5 runs through the park.

Balboa Park, San Diego

Liberty Park, Salt Lake City

Liberty Park, Salt Lake City

Liberty Park (Salt Lake City, USA): detailed description, address and photo. Opportunities for sports and recreation, infrastructure, cafes and restaurants in the park. Reviews of tourists.

The popular city park Liberty in Salt Lake City is the second largest in the city: its area is 32 hectares. This area has a pond with two islands, and Tracy’s poultry house is also located here. Also in the park is the old mill of Isaac Chase. Both she and the park itself are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

In addition, Liberty Park has playgrounds, snack stalls, a shooting range, children’s play areas, picnic areas, large green lawns, a horseshoe pole, a swimming pool, basketball and volleyball courts, tennis courts, a long jogging track more than 2 km and slides (open in season). In a word, the park has everything you need for a fun weekend, and it is very fond of rollerbladers, cyclists and skaters.

According to toppharmacyschools, the park was founded in 1881 after the purchase of a piece of land by Briam Young. The park was designed after the example of Central Park in New York and is still considered “the best example of “Central Park” in Utah “. Plus, there are several historical buildings and structures in Liberty.

The Chase House is a two-story residential building owned by Isaac Chase. Since 1987, it has housed a permanent exhibit at the Utah Folk Art Museum.

Tracy’s poultry house occupies more than 3 hectares of the park. City banker Russell Lord Tracy created it by donating his own collection of birds to the city and its children. The poultry house was opened in 1938, and since then about 400 birds of about 135 species have been living in it. Many of the inhabitants of the park are rare or endangered species.

The Isaac Chase Mill is in the northeast corner of Tracy’s poultry house, on East Sixth Street. The mill was built in 1852 by architect William Wicks and is considered the oldest surviving commercial building in Utah. In 1970, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The sculptural fountain of the park depicts the Jordan River and its tributaries in the canyon. In summer, children can play in the fountain.

The Chase House is a two-story residential building owned by Isaac Chase. Since 1987, it has housed a permanent exhibit at the Utah Folk Art Museum. The historical building not only exhibits art objects, but also constantly hosts events of local art communities that share the secrets of craftsmanship with each other, play music, dance, etc.

It is in Liberty Park that fireworks are launched on Pioneer Day in Salt Lake City (July 24).

The museum has four galleries. The first is dedicated to the original inhabitants of present-day Utah – the Indians and their traditional crafts, such as weaving baskets, sewing clothes from skins, etc. The ethnic gallery is dedicated to the ethnic diversity that arose in Utah with the advent of the Mormons, among whom were immigrants from Scandinavia and the British Isles, and later – Southern Europe and Asia. The gallery of residences is due to the fact that many residents of the state identified themselves exclusively with a certain point on the map, and often members of one community did not mix with members of another. The traditional art objects of such a group expressed its values, traditions and way of life. The rural gallery is dedicated to the few communities that inhabited the deaf and distant territories of the state.

Isaac Chase was an associate of the Mormon leader Briam Young, and in the 1850s. they built a flour mill together in the center of a pioneer farm with an area of ​​​​0.45 square meters. km.

On Sundays in spring, summer and early autumn, huge crowds of people gather in the park to listen to the teams of drummers playing hand drums here. Accordingly, if you do not want to be in the midst of people, pets (mostly dogs), musical instruments and amateur dancers, it is better to stay away from Liberty on Sundays.

Practical Information

Address: 6th East, Liberty Park.

Liberty Park, Salt Lake City

Portland, Oregon

Portland, Oregon

Guide to Portland, Oregon: how to get there and where to stay, what to see and where to go in the evening. The best things to do in Portland, Oregon: fresh reviews and photos, places to see, branded entertainment and shopping.

One of the two American Portlands, this city differs from its namesake in Maine as much as the west coast of the United States differs from the east. One of the greenest cities in America, it is also a lively, modern metropolis full of movement. Portlanders, who number about 600,000, are proud of their skytrain and half a dozen colloquial names by which the city is known in the country: Beer Paradise (“Birwana”), City of Roses, City of Bridges, City of English Football and even Little Beirut.

In recent decades, Portland has experienced a rapid growth in food service, and the city has been named the best in the world by CNN for its street food.

How to get to Portland, Oregon

According to toppharmacyschools, Portland has an international airport, but direct flights from Russia do not yet fly here. Rail links connect the city with Los Angeles and Chicago.

Search for flights to Portland, Oregon at the lowest prices

A bit of history

Once the Indians inhabited this place, and non-native Americans got here only in the 19th century. The first significant piece of land was acquired by a couple of colonists, natives of Boston and Portland, Maine. Both wanted to name the settlement after their homeland, and the outcome of the dispute was decided by a coin. This happened in 1845. Portland’s excellent location on two navigable rivers near the ocean gave impetus to the rapid growth and development of its port: it remained the largest on the coast until the end of the century, when Seattle took over.

The coin, which determined the name of the future city, is exhibited as an exhibit of the Museum of the Oregon History Society under the name “Portland Penny”.

4 things to do in Portland

  1. Visit the International Rose Research Park and other rose gardens in the city. The climate of Portland is perfect for growing these flowers.
  2. Ride all types of city trains: the fast MAX light rail, the more traditional streetcar, the Westside WES, or the aerial cable car from the South Shore to the Health University on Mt. It is especially pleasant to ride, being in the free travel zone in the city center. And sometimes real steam locomotives (the only ones operating in the USA) drive around the city.
  3. Inspect the food courts: have a bagel breakfast at Fifth Avenue Brunch Bock, mahi-mahi lunch at Alder’s Roast Scotch, dine on Norwegian lefse at Viking Soul at Good Food.
  4. Be sure to find the iconic donut Voodoo donut, the most famous on the coast and in all of America. Here they bake donuts with monstrous additives (for example, bacon) and the most breathtaking forms (for example, donuts-phalluses), here you can officially get married, and here the US president himself orders donuts.

Attractions and attractions in Portland, Oregon

For obvious reasons, you can’t see buildings older than a hundred years in this Portland. But when planning it, they carefully took into account the natural features of the landscape, trying not to disturb the natural harmony. This is how the eastern esplanade on the Willamette coast appeared, diving under picturesque bridges. By the way, bridges are an important part of the city panorama and obligatory objects, if not for visiting, then at least for taking pictures. This is primarily the St. John Suspension Bridge, recognizable thanks to the pair of sharp spiers of the pillars, and the Hawthorne Bridge, through which it is easy to get to the science museum. Both bridges have walkways.

The oldest urban area is located on the West Side, and its center is a large building of the Italianate station made of marble, built in 1890. An Italian quarter was formed nearby with many eateries. Nearby stands the most, perhaps, the famous building of the city – the Portland Building with a statue of Portland installed on it. This is a huge copper sculpture, inferior in size from all North American only to the Statue of Liberty. The height of a crouched woman with a trident is 10 m (and if a woman stood up, she would be 15 meters high). The sculpture was made in parts near Washington and only then brought to the city and assembled here in 1985.

The Portland Art Museum is one of the 25 largest museums in the country, and every year it opens temporary exhibitions from other museums. Many art galleries are located in the center, in the Pearl District and Alberta Arts. And on the banks of the Willamette there is an interesting museum of science and industry, where you can study the objects exhibited as exhibits that had real use in these industries. The museum includes halls for earth and life sciences, a turbine hall, a planetarium, and a hall for temporary, frequently updated exhibitions. Also of interest is Powell’s City of Books, a huge multi-storey bookstore that occupies a block on the corner of Burnside. In addition, Portland has a maritime museum where you can get a closer look at the life of fishermen. And also a slightly funny little museum of hats.

It was in Portland, in the famous Satyricon nightclub, that Kurt Cobain (Nirvana) met his future wife, Courtney Love, who grew up and lived here for a long time. Unfortunately, the club no longer exists.

In the heart of Downtown, near Chinatown, there is Akeni Plaza, where a market is open on Saturdays. Also on the square is the bronze and granite Skidmore Fountain, which appeared here in 1888 and is today considered one of the oldest objects of public art. Very beautiful is the white Old Church on 11th Avenue, a Presbyterian church built in 1883 in the Victorian style. In its interior, many carefully executed wooden carvings, vaulted ceilings and columns of the Corinthian order have been preserved. Today, events and concerts are held within the walls of the church, and the concert on Wednesdays at noon is free.

Walking around the city, you should also look into the southern districts – built up with Victorian houses Sellwood and Hawthorne, where many shops are located. Be sure to also visit the Grotto in the northeast, a modern Catholic chapel built next to the Grotto of the Sorrowing Mother. The chapel is surrounded by beautiful sculptures, and on the territory around there is a picturesque and quiet botanical garden with a wonderful view of Mount St. Helen. And not far from the Hawthorne Bridge in the southwest are two central squares of the city – Lawnsdale and Chapman. Initially, in 1900, the first of them was intended for men, and the second for women and children, so the squares are officially separated from each other. Here stands the figure of a white elk – the unofficial emblem of the city, and in the heat it is shady and cool.

Portland is full of small breweries: about 40. That’s more than any other city in the world.

In the “greenest city” you can not ignore the city gardens and parks. For example, Tom McCall Park by the water with a 3 km long walking area or the famous Washington Park on the West Hills. On the territory of this park there is a forest center, a zoo, a Japanese garden and an arboretum. In addition, the city has a classical Chinese garden in the style of Suzhou. Beautiful old wooded park Laurelhurst in the city center. And near Crystal Springs Lake in the park there is a rhododendron garden with two thousand plants. In Hillside West Park, in the hills, you can see the beautiful Pittock Mansion, which today houses a museum. Moreover, Portland in Oregon is one of three North American cities that stand on extinct volcanoes (not counting the island territories). In Portland, this is Mount Tabor, which is a natural park with amazing views.

The city also has the tiniest park in the world, Mill Ends. The park is located on the corner of Taylor Street and Southwest Front Avenue. To be honest, it’s just a flower bed with one small Christmas tree.

In recent decades, Portland has experienced a rapid growth in food service, and the city has been named the best in the world by CNN for its street food. There are already more than 600 small eateries with or without their own kitchens in the city. And these are by no means some crappy eateries in the Russian imagination: sanitary standards are strictly observed here, and very tasty and not at all simple dishes are prepared even in the smallest kitchens. Food courts are grouped by district; the largest is Alder, not far from Powell’s bookstore. Those who wish can even take part in one of the various (thematic) group tours of the food courts in the company of a guide.

It is believed that Portlanders are complete coffee lovers.

Every year, Portland hosts the June Rose Festival with a host of events as part of its program, including a carnival. And the Hollywood Theater in Portland hosts a regular festival of films based on Lovecraft’s books.

Portland, Oregon

Flagstaff, Arizona

Flagstaff, Arizona

Guide to Flagstaff: how to get there and where to stay, what to see and where to go in the evening. Highlights of Flagstaff: fresh reviews and photos, places to see, branded entertainment and shopping.

According to toppharmacyschools, Flagstaff is located in northern Arizona, at an altitude of about 2000 m above sea level, near the San Francisco Pikes mountain range and not so far from the Grand Canyon. Flagstaff is known for three things: the famous observatory, filming and amazingly rich in terms of natural beauty surroundings. This is a wonderful city for those who are attracted by an unusual combination of desert landscapes, snow-capped mountains, craters and canyons, clean air and dark starry skies.

How to get to Flagstaff

Flagstaff Pulliam Airport receives scheduled flights, including from Phoenix. The nearest major international airport is also located there (approximately 2.5 hours by car). Daily Amtrak trains run to the city on the Chicago-Los Angeles line. Plus, the city stands at the intersection of Interstate 40, which runs from California in the west to New Mexico in the east along the historic Route 66, and Interstate 17, which leads to Phoenix.

A bit of history

The first permanent settlement was established here in 1876, and over the past 10 years, the town has become the largest on the railroad line between Albuquerque and the West Coast. The city grew rapidly thanks to the railway: by the end of the 19th century, about a hundred trains passed through it daily. And in 1894, astronomer Percival Lowell, in search of a good site for the observatory, chose Flagstaff and brought here a specially designed Clark telescope two years later – it remains in the observatory to this day. Finally, in 1926, the construction of Route 66 was completed, which passed through Flagstaff.

Attractions and attractions in Flagstaff

The small city stretches along the famous Route 66, and its compact downtown area is only about five blocks in the western part of Flagstaff, near the Mars Hill base, where the Lowell Observatory is located. The latter is a historical institute and still a major center for astronomical research, which you can walk around with an organized tour. The tour program includes the opportunity to look through the 24-inch Clark telescope and smaller telescopes.

It was Lowell who discovered the planet Pluto in 1930 at his observatory. And during the preparation of the Apollo program in the 1960s. her Clark telescope was used to map the moon in search of a safe landing site for the module.

The Museum of Northern Arizona is located on Valley Road, in the northern part of the city, on Highway 180. Here you can get acquainted with the life of Native Americans and the natural history of the region, look at Native American pottery and woven products. The museum has a good view of the Flag River, and the gift shop at the museum sells a variety of traditional Native American art, especially Navajo rugs.

3 things to do in Flagstaff:

  1. Spend an evening in the popular lounge of the Monte Vista Hotel or visit the Museum Club, built in 1931. Since then, not a single piece of decor has been changed or even moved in this roadside bar.
  2. Take a photo of a pair of gargoyles on the rare gothic pink Church of the Nativity.
  3. Take the chance to go skiing in the middle of the desert.

The Flagstaff Arboretum is a 200-acre botanical garden with a research station and nature center that houses the largest collection of upland wildflowers in the United States. There are also guided tours around the arboretum, and on certain days there are shows with birds of prey.

The Riordan wooden mansion has been given the status of a historical park. This is an excellent example of the architectural style of the Arts and Crafts movement, built in 1904 as a family residence. Also of interest is the Arizona Pioneer Historical Museum – small, but storing a variety of documents and photographs related to the history of the city. The museum occupies the building of a former hospital, and among its expositions is dedicated to early medicine, as well as the history of Route 66, logging and the railway with an old steam locomotive.

On New Year’s Eve, Flagstaff residents gather around the historic Weatherford Hotel, built in 1897. At midnight, an almost two-meter-high metal pine cone weighing about 30 kilos is dropped from the roof of the hotel. The tradition has been going on since 1999, when the owners of the hotel threw a garbage can from the roof, decorated with drawings, light bulbs and cones, in honor of the coming millennium.

The historic Monte Vista Hotel was built in 1927 on San Francisco Street and became the heart of Old Town Flagstaff. Since many films about the Wild West were filmed in the city and its environs, the brightest stars of American cinema stayed at the hotel: John Wayne, Harry Cooper, Bing Crosby, Spencer Tracy, Humphrey Bogart, Clark Gable, Anthony Hopkins. There are many ghost legends associated with the hotel, such as the ghostly bellhop who knocks on guests’ doors at night. And in one of the rooms they filmed the scene of the cult “Casablanca”.

Neighborhood of Flagstaff

The surroundings of Flagstaff are the most conducive to all types of mountain tourism, including mountain biking and rock climbing. You can start from Mount Elden, which is pierced along and across by hiking trails. One of the most popular routes is Elden Lookout, which leads to an observation deck with a beautiful view of the city at an altitude of 855 m from the starting point.

Arizona Snowbowl is one of only three ski resorts in the state, and the fact that it’s located in the desert gives it a special charm. Snowbowl became one of the first 10 ski resorts in the country. It is located in the mountains of San Francisco, not far from the highest mountain in the state – Humphreys Peak. There are several sacred places for Indian tribes in the mountains, so hiking here is not possible everywhere.

Around the city there is an incredible number of national parks, of which the most famous, of course, is the Grand Canyon. But there are others: for example, Walnut Canyon, where you can see Indian rock paintings. Or Wupatki, where the ruins of Indian settlements have been preserved. Not far from it is an extinct volcano – Sunset Crater. And Barringer Crater, to the east of the city, is no longer formed by a volcano, but by a meteorite, and this is an exceptionally well-preserved meteorite trail (although not the largest in the world).

Halfway between Flagstaff and Phoenix is ​​Montezuma Castle National Monument with rock paintings; Oak Creek Canyon is often referred to as the Grand Canyon’s little brother for its scenic beauty; and in Glen Canyon you can see the famous Rainbow Bridge created by nature.

Flagstaff events

Despite its small size, Flagstaff hosts many events and weekend festivals each year. In the spring, the Northern Arizona Book Festival is held here, allowing famous writers in the country to present their latest work. The film festival takes place every October and lasts 4 days with several film sessions. During the summer, the city hosts festivals of Hopi and Navajo arts and culture, the Arizona Celtic Festival, and a beer tasting festival. And in September, for more than 20 years, the Science Festival has been held in Flagstaff – a family event with lectures and all kinds of interactive programs.

Flagstaff, Arizona

Cleveland, Ohio

Cleveland, Ohio

Guide to Cleveland: how to get there and where to stay, what to see and where to go in the evening. The best things to do in Cleveland: fresh reviews and photos, places to see, branded entertainment and shopping.

According to toppharmacyschools, Cleveland is the second largest city in Ohio and one of the most famous. It stands on the shores of one of the Great Lakes – Erie, and the boundaries of the city are so blurred that it’s hard to really say how many people live in it. What can be said for sure is that in this half-millionaire (at least) there is something to do.

Almost a must-see for any true music lover and fan of the 50s era. considered the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The Hall of Fame was opened in the late 80s, and then a mind-blowingly brilliant galaxy of names was admitted to the club: Elvis, Chuck Berry, Ray Charles, Jerry Lee Lewis, James Brown.

How to get to Cleveland

Cleveland is served by Johns Hopkins International Airport, the largest in the state. In addition, you can get to the city by train from Washington, Chicago, New York or Boston.

A bit of history

The exact date of the founding of Cleveland is 1796, and the city got its name from the name of the founder, general and independence fighter Moses Cleveland. Later, one letter disappeared from the name, but this did not affect the pronunciation. Standing on the lake, Cleveland developed rapidly: the laying of a railway line contributed to the growth of heavy industry and, accordingly, the number of millionaire townspeople. In the first half of the 20th century, the city even ranked fifth in terms of population in the country. However, the Great Depression and the decline of the industry led to a crisis, after which both the economic well-being and the population of the city began to decline.

Entertainment and attractions in Cleveland

Cleveland is divided into two parts by a river with the old Native American name Cuyahoga. Accordingly, it is customary to divide the districts of the city into eastern and western. In addition, there is a second division according to the cardinal points, depending on whether the quarter is located close to the lake shore.

The historical center of the city is Public Square, near which you can see the three main city skyscrapers. On the same square, the most attractive buildings from a tourist point of view are located: an ancient old stone church and a war memorial to soldiers of land and sea military forces. The central quarter, the so-called Civic Center, is located north of Public Square: it is there that the City Hall and other administrative institutions are located. In addition, the Civic Center is distinguished by an abundance of greenery and a vast park area. The popular city park Cleveland Mall is so large that it is conditionally divided into three parts: A, B, C.

Going a little further north, visitors to the city find themselves in the Northern Coastal Region. The main attraction here, apart from the huge city stadium, is the Great Lakes Museum and Science Center. Another interesting museum in the same area of ​​the city is the huge beautiful steamship “William J. Mather”, which is permanently laid up in the harbor. Moored nearby is the USS Cod submarine, one of the combat submarines of World War II.

3 things to do in Cleveland:

  1. See a huge red monument seal, which is called “Free Stamp”.
  2. Visit one of the most touching museums in the city – the Victorian Christmas Story Museum, opened in 2004 and dedicated to Ralph Parker’s 1983 film of the same name.
  3. Spend at least a few hours visiting the original ethnic areas of the city – Little Italy, Slavic Village and Tremont.

Those who are not accustomed to associate the name of Cleveland with art will be surprised by the abundance of world-class cultural institutions in the city. For example, here in the Theater District there is a huge theater complex “Playhouse Square Center”, the second largest in the country.

For fans of classical music culture in Cleveland, it will be interesting to get into Severance Hall, which is in the University District, a concert venue where the city’s famous symphony orchestra is based. It was created in 1918 and today is one of the “Great Five” symphony orchestras in the country (along with New York, Chicago, Philadelphia and Boston).

Cleveland seriously claims to be called the birthplace and capital of rock and roll, citing the fact that it was here that the notorious radio station WMMS began its broadcast. And also by the fact that Alan Fried, a disc jockey, worked on it, who, in fact, came up with the very phrase “rock and roll”.

Almost a must-see for any true music lover and fan of the 50s era. considered the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. This is both a museum and a concert venue, which occupies a futuristic-looking multi-tiered building designed by the famous Chinese architect Yeo Ming Pei. The Hall of Fame was opened in the late 80s, and then a mind-blowingly brilliant galaxy of names was admitted to the club: Elvis, Chuck Berry, Ray Charles, Jerry Lee Lewis, James Brown. Since then, the club has been replenished with new names every year: one of the conditions for getting here is the following rule: at least a quarter of a century must have passed since the release of the first single of the artist. And now it doesn’t even matter how close the style of a particular team or artist is to true rock and roll. So, in 2014, Nirvana was inducted into the Hall of Fame.

Alas, Cleveland cannot be called a safe city. Of course, it is far from the criminal capital of the United States, but in the ratings in terms of crime, the city is consistently in the top ten. One of the reasons (or consequences?) can be called a clear division into “whites” and “blacks” and a confrontation between them. By the way, according to the population censuses, there are more “blacks” in the city.

Cleveland cuisine

On the one hand, it is difficult to consider Cleveland the gastronomic capital of the United States. On the other hand, the city is actively fighting for this title. Celebrity chef Michael Simon and food reporter Michael Ruleman live and work here. And in 2008, the Chicago Tribune touted Cleveland as “a hot new lunch city.”

Moreover, an explosive cocktail of cultures and nationalities has led to the formation of several isolated and colorful culinary enclaves here. For example, in “Little Italy”, in the University District, ethnic Latins live, and this area, for obvious reasons, is considered the most “delicious” in the city. Be sure to visit the Prestis Bakery on the corner of Mayfield and Coltman (by the way, there are also many art galleries and boutiques here). It competes with the “Slavic Village”, founded by immigrants from central Europe, in the area of ​​​​Fleet Avenue and Broadway. Mostly Czechs and Poles settled there, so here you can heartily eat dumplings and baked goods familiar to Russian people (and at the same time admire the amazing Catholic Church of St. Stanislav).

The city can also boast of several special products and dishes.

In particular, it is Cleveland that is considered the main city in terms of corned beef: Esquire magazine named the local beef the best in the United States in 2008.

Another quintessentially Cleveland dish is the Polish Boy sandwich, which is made with Polish sausage stuffed into a bun, topped with french fries and cabbage.

Neighborhoods of Cleveland

Cleveland is quite large, and it’s hard to tell where the city itself ends and its surroundings begin. In particular, the so-called University District – the location of most of Cleveland’s medical, academic and educational institutions – is located about five miles from the city. It is primarily interesting in the Museum of Natural History, founded in 1920 as a base for scientific research. Museum visitors can admire a number of truly impressive exhibits, from a 1:1 scale model of a stegosaurus to a huge collection of human and ape skeletons. Near the museum there is a planetarium where you can see ancient astronomical devices.

Also in the University District is the Museum of Art, one of the most upscale in North America. Moreover, you can view the permanent exhibition of the museum for free. It includes collections of pre-colonial North American art, as well as European Middle Ages and art from the once-colonial countries of India and Asia. In addition, the city’s botanical garden is located on the territory of the University District, in the greenhouse of which the rainforest of Costa Rica is recreated.

And for a break from the beautiful, you should look at the West Side Market. Don’t miss this landmark 25th Street tower building, built in 1840 and listed on the National Historic Places list. Tourists from all over the United States flock inside: organized tours are held in the old market. And, of course, you can buy excellent farm products and national dishes here: in 2010, the Food Network magazine declared the Cleveland covered market “Best for food lovers.”

Cleveland, Ohio

Boston, Massachusetts

Boston, Massachusetts

Guide to Boston: how to get there and where to stay, what to see and where to go in the evening. The best things to do in Boston: fresh reviews and photos, places to see, branded entertainment and shopping.

According to toppharmacyschools, Boston is the largest city in New England, the capital of Massachusetts, one of the most historical, influential and wealthy cities in the United States. Museums, historical sites, an abundance of live performances are just some of the reasons why more than 16 million visitors come to the city every year. Thanks to them, Boston is one of the ten most popular tourist destinations in the country.

Officially, they do not belong to Boston, but Cambridge and Brooklyn are firmly connected with it. The first, which is located on the opposite bank of the Charles River, is Harvard, MIT, local galleries, restaurants and bars. The second, which Boston has already almost surrounded, is a specific atmosphere, restaurants and shopping.

Many areas of Boston have their own character and characteristics. Downtown is a tourist mecca with many attractions, business and shopping center of the city. The most luxury is concentrated in Black Bay. Original brick houses of the same age as the city and old gas lamps can be found in Beacon Hill. And Boston’s Chinatown is the fourth largest in the United States.

And, by the way, it was this city that became the stage where the historical provocation called the Boston Tea Party unfolded, which resulted in the American War of Independence.

How to get there

Alialia, Air France, KLM, Delta fly from Moscow to Boston with connections in Europe. From St. Petersburg – Aitalia and Air France.

Weather in Boston

Boston, like all of New England, is located in the maritime climate zone. Summers tend to be warm and humid, while winters are cool, windy and often snowy. The hottest month is July, with an average temperature of +28°C. The coldest is January, with an average temperature of +2 °C. Fog is not uncommon in spring and early summer.

Entertainment and attractions in Boston

The easiest way to explore the city is by districts:

  • Cambridge: Harvard University (the oldest in the US) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Harvard Square, surrounded by cafes, restaurants, shops and students; building Harvard Yard, Museum of Natural History with a huge collection of nature and geology of North America.
  • North End: The Witch Museum and the House of Seven Gables, which was the setting of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel of the same name (now a small museum).
  • Charleston: a real Boston open-air museum of shipbuilding, the oldest ship in the US Navy, the Constitution, is located here; Charleston Navy Yard is one of the country’s main shipbuilding centers; rope yard; the colorful Charleston Bridge.
  • Beacon Hill: Massachusetts State House; the building of the Old South Meeting House, which in 1774 served as the beginning of the famous “Boston Tea Party”.

Boston’s “calling card” is the Symphony Hall complex on Massachusetts Avenue. No less interesting: the Prudential Tower complex with the Skywalk Observatory on the 52nd floor, the Library and Museum. Kennedy, Cheers Bar (various TV shows are often filmed here), the New England Conservatory, the Huntington Theater, and the Government Center complex.

The so-called “Freedom Path” passes through the whole city (marked for tourists by explanatory inscriptions and a red line running along the sidewalk). This 5 km hiking trail will take you through all 16 places where the city’s historical monuments and its most interesting sights are located.

Museums in Boston

Boston is home to the world-famous Museum of Fine Arts, the Boston Museum of Science, and the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum.

The Museum of Fine Arts (MFA) is one of the largest art museums in the United States. An impressive collection of American realists and impressionists (John Copley, Winslow Homer and John Sargent), French impressionists and post-impressionists (Monet, Manet, Renoir, Degas, Van Gogh, Cezanne, Gauguin). Address: Avenue of the Arts, 465, Huntington Avenue Boston.

The Museum of Science (MoS) features over 500 interactive exhibits, live demonstrations, the Charles Hayden Planetarium, and the Mugar Omni IMAX Cinema (New England’s only domed IMAX screen). Address: Science Park, 1. Working hours: Saturday-Tuesday from 9:00 to 17:00, Friday – from 9:00 to 21:00. Entrance to the permanent exhibition – 28 USD, to the botanical garden, IMAX – about 10 USD, planetarium – 10 USD.

The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum is a private art gallery housed in a Venetian-style building. 2,500 pieces of European art, including such masterpieces as Titian’s Rape of Europe and Raphael’s Altar of the Colonna family. An extensive collection of American artists of the turn of the century – John Sargent and James Whistler. Address: The Fenway, 280. Opening hours: Tuesday-Sunday from 11:00 to 17:00. Entrance – 15 USD, 65+ – 12 USD, college students – 10 USD.

The Institute of Contemporary Art is 6000 sq. m architectural studio Diller Scofidio + Renfro, a theater with 325 seats and a spacious educational center. Address: Northern Avenue, 100.

Boston, Massachusetts

Tibet, China: Shopping, Nightlife, Culinary and Accommodation

Tibet, China: Shopping, Nightlife, Culinary and Accommodation



Tibet offers unique souvenirs. Pilgrim accessories such as prayer flags, portable prayer wheels and brass butter lamps are found in most monasteries and pilgrimage sites and are the most typical travel souvenirs. Arts and crafts from Tibet include hand-painted thangkas (religious images) and metal-cast Buddha statues and figures of the tutelary gods. Handwoven carpets are making a comeback in Lhasa and Shigatse. In addition, chuba (coats lined with sheepskin), the cowboy hats of the nomads and the chic dresses of the Tibetan women are also suitable as souvenirs. Caution should be exercised when buying turquoise jewelry, as it is usually fake. The best choice is in Lhasa, especially on the Barkhor, where prices should be bargained down, and Lhasa Village. Chinese trekking articles, some genuine and some fake, with a wide range to rival that of Kathmandu, are also available for purchase. A certificate is required to export antiques made before 1949. Under no circumstances should you buy skins and skins from endangered species such as leopards. are also available for purchase. A certificate is required to export antiques made before 1949. Under no circumstances should you buy skins and skins from endangered species such as leopards. are also available for purchase. A certificate is required to export antiques made before 1949. Under no circumstances should you buy skins and skins from endangered species such as leopards.

Opening hours

Daily from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m.



Lhasa is the only Tibetan city that has any kind of nightlife. Most bars are Chinese karaoke bars, but there is sometimes live blues and pop music. Backpackers’ favorite haunts are the restaurants and cafes near the old town, where you can chat about your trekking adventures until the early hours of the morning. Most interesting are the Nangma clubs with their unique mix of Tibetan karaoke, live music and line dancing. Traditional music and folk dance are usually only seen during festivals, but there are a few venues in Lhasa that offer stage shows for tourists.



The rugged mountainous landscape of Tibet has resulted in a relatively simple cuisine. The staple foods of most Tibetans are dumplings and noodles. On special occasions there is also roasted yak meat. Chinese restaurants are everywhere, offering spicy Sichuan dishes or Muslim (pork-free) Gansu dishes. Backpacker-friendly restaurants in the larger cities serve variations on Western fare, including yak burgers and yak cheesecake.

Regional specialities

Momos are steamed, sometimes fried dumplings filled with pureed vegetables and yak fish. They are typical of the Himalayan region and are eaten from Ladakh to Bhutan. Thukba is one of the many variations of noodle soup. Depending on the shape of the pasta, the thick dish is also called thanthuk or hipthuk. Bö cha (yak butter tea) is the most typical drink in Tibet. Tea leaves, boiling water, yak butter, salt and baking soda are mixed in a long wooden vessel to create a greasy, broth-like drink notorious among foreigners. It’s perfect for replenishing salt loss and preventing chapped lips. Tsampa (roasted, ground barley) is a staple food in rural areas of Tibet. It is often mixed with butter tea to make a nutritious porridge. Mixed with sugar and milk or yoghurt, it becomes a tasty breakfast.


Tipping is not normally expected, but 10% is appreciated in tourist restaurants.



Hotels, which are mainly found in Lhasa, range from youth hostels to chic guesthouses to luxury hotel chains such as Sheraton and St. Regis. Typically Chinese hotels are found outside of the larger cities, and in remote areas one sometimes has to make do with dormitory-style rest areas without running water or indoor toilets. In general, the hotel facilities are perfectly acceptable, if not particularly inspiring. If you are traveling off the tourist routes, you should take a sleeping bag with you.


If you want to travel to the far west or east or to popular travel destinations such as Lake Namtsho or the region around Mount Everest, you should definitely take a tent and sleeping bag with you. Be prepared for extreme weather conditions and cold, but those who are well equipped will absolutely enjoy camping by one of the clear, turquoise Tibetan lakes.

Other accommodation options

Budget accommodation Popular destinations such as Lhasa and Shigatse have hostels or budget hotels accustomed to foreign or Chinese backpackers. The youth hostels in Lhasa are particularly popular with Chinese backpackers. There are mostly dorms and private rooms to choose from, and rental bikes, internet access and washing machines are often available. Special accommodations Especially in Lhasa there are some wonderful boutique hotels, for example in historic villas or even in former monks’ residences. You may have to forgo one or two modern conveniences, but the pretty, traditional architecture and private meditation rooms or chapels easily compensate for this. Depending on the political situation, it is sometimes also possible to stay overnight in a monastery’s guest house, for example in Mindroling, Drigung Til or Dorje Drak – a simple but charming and timeless type of accommodation.



Tibet’s history has long been shaped by its powerful neighbor China. The early Tibetan Empire was one of the largest in Asia, taking even the Chinese capital of Xian in AD 763. However, the arrival of Buddhism in the eighth and ninth centuries fundamentally changed Tibet. A warrior empire has become one of the world’s most progressive centers of spirituality. The Middle Ages were defined by the relationship with China and Mongolia and the poorly defined notion of independence and tribute. This problem is as relevant today as it was in the 13th century. until the 20th In the 19th century, under the leadership of the born-again Dalai Lamas, Tibet was essentially a medieval theocracy, with wealth, education and political power in the hands of powerful and often rival monasteries. For much of the 19th and 20th centuries, Tibet isolated itself from the rest of the world; it used the Himalayas as a kind of bulwark and closed its gates to international visitors, which contributed to its exotic-mysterious image abroad. Communist China’s conquest of Tibet in 1950 broke this isolation, ushering in four decades of political turmoil and personal tragedy. The flight of the Dalai Lama in 1959 is part of the long list of accidents, the destruction of thousands of monasteries in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s and the internment of thousands of political prisoners, many of whom were monks and nuns. Since the late 1980s, many of the former religious freedoms have returned, but political tensions remain. Violent demonstrations by Tibetans drew attention in 1987, 1989 and 2008, and the Tibet issue remains problematic for China internationally. However, Tibet’s economy is growing vigorously and tourism is a good business with more than two million visitors a year, most of whom are Chinese. The communist government points to huge investments in infrastructure, airports and the disputed railway line as evidence of its determination to improve the lives of Tibetans. Frustrated Tibetans, on the other hand, complain about the mass Chinese immigration, the poor labor market situation and the interference of the Chinese state in religious matters. As the Chinese government continues to exclude the Dalai Lama from political processes, the future of Tibet remains uncertain for the time being.



Almost all locals are Tibetan Buddhists and practice Vajrayana, a form of Tantric Buddhism. A natural religion widespread among the Tibetan people is based primarily on the pre-Buddhist Bon religion, a shamanic belief system involving spirits, imprecations and exorcism.

Social Rules of Conduct

Tibetans are generally very good-natured people. One should always walk clockwise around a stupa, religious statue, or mani wall (a stone wall engraved with religious mantras). Prayer wheels are also turned clockwise. One should not smoke or speak loudly in a monastery. A sky burial should not be attended uninvited, and even if invited, you must never photograph it. A guest of honor or a visitor in Tibet is often given a kathak, a white silk scarf. One should never discuss politics with one’s guide or a monk, as one never knows who is listening. Bridges, military installations or the army are not allowed to be photographed.


Best travel time

The best time to visit Tibet is between April and October. The high season falls in July and August and the weeks after the national holidays of May 1st and October 1st.

The mid-season months of April and May are the ideal time to visit if you want to avoid large crowds of tourists. The best months for trekking trips are July, August and September. Winters are very cold and accommodation and food options are limited, but if you are well equipped, this can be a great time to travel to Tibet.

Country data

Area (sq km)



2.93 Mio.

Population density (per square km)


Population statistics year


Tibet, China

History of Valparaíso, Chile

History of Valparaíso, Chile


The area where Valparaíso was later developed was inhabited before the arrival of the Spanish conquerors by the monkeys, an eminently fishing people who moved from one place to another according to their needs. They had rafts made of wolf skin for fishing and also fed on wild fruits. The monkeys used to fish and gather shellfish and inhabited the slopes of the hills very close to the fishing places and beaches. They practiced barter with the cultures of the interior, especially to obtain pottery, since the collecting peoples are transhumant and generally do not have pottery production. They are also known as shell culture. These were the original residents of Valparaíso who belonged to the southern sector of the Inca empire. The sector that extends between Concón and Punta Duprat, where the Molo de Abrigo is located, was known as Alimapu (‘land destroyed by fire’) by the picunches, while the area where the city later developed was called Quinti l for the monkeys.

Colonial era (16th to 19th centuries)

The official discovery of Valparaíso for Europeans occurred within the framework of the expedition to Chile by the Spanish Diego de Almagro, who in 1534 organized from Cuzco (after “differences” with Francisco Pizarro) his trip to Chile that began on 3 in July 1535, seeking large amounts of gold as the Incas had in the southern country. For this, apart from the land expedition commanded by Almagro, there was a support marine expedition under the command of Juan de Saavedra, which included the Santiaguillo ship. This ship anchored in Quintil Bay in the first days of September 1536 and Saavedra renamed it Valparaíso in memory of his native town in Europe.

Although his mission to find gold in Chile was a resounding failure (and the trip to the country, both outward and return, an ordeal), he discovered to his surprise two Spaniards who were already perfectly settled: Gonzalo Calvo de Barrientos and Antón Closed, both living in the indigenous way in what is now Quillota, in central Chile. Realizing that further south there was cold territory, without gold and populated by hostile indigenous people, Almagro decides to return to Cuzco, where he began a fratricidal fight with Pizarro. In this conflict, Captain Pedro de Valdivia stood out on Pizarro’s side, whose presence helped the subsequent victory over Almagro.

In 1536 the Santiaguillo arrived in the bay of Valparaíso (Quintil), which is part of a flotilla of caravels that brought supplies for the first advance of Diego de Almagro, commissioned by the viceroy of Peru to conquer Chile. The flotilla is in charge of Don Alonso de Quinteros who stops in the bay of Cancanicagua (today Quinteros), advancing the Santiaguillo to the south and is found from land by Don Juan de Saavedra who is recognized as the discoverer of the sector.

Pedro de Valdivia, Spanish conqueror, founded Santiago de Chile in 1541 and the 13 of September of 1544 designates Valparaíso as “natural port of Santiago” and appoints the marine Genovese Juan Bautista Pastene as a first lieutenant in the territorial south and first official public of the Quintil valley.

At his own request, Pizarro granted Valdivia permission to “conquer” Chile. Its first official act was the founding of the city of Santiago de la Nueva Extremadura in 1541, with Valparaíso being designated as its natural port on September 3, 1544.

In 1552, the privileged geographical situation of Valparaíso helped to consolidate the founding process of the new lands granted to the King of Spain, for which, in November 1552, a port was ordered to be built in the bay. A small village begins to grow but its movement and activity are very poor. This is mainly due to the fact that Lima and its natural port, El Callao, important enclaves of the Viceroyalty of Peru, exercise a monopoly that negatively affects the commercial management of Valparaíso.

In 1559. A sketch of the city begins to be outlined, with a chapel rising in the place that today is occupied by the church of La Matriz. At that time, the whole place was very close to the coast and wineries and small houses appeared around it.

At this time, the looting, destruction and deaths caused by pirates were relatively common, especially those of English origin such as: Francis Drake in 1587 or Richard Hawkins at the end of the 16th century.

On 13 September as as 1599 sets sail from Goerce the Dutch privateer Oliver Van Noort. He was the first Dutchman to circumnavigate the world. Van Noort attacked Valparaíso in 1600 burning three ships and capturing three other ships. He acted cruelly executing thirty Spanish sailors who he captured, keeping only one navigator to guide him to Peru, whom he simply threw into the sea when he was no longer useful. Earlier, near Concepción, Van Noort attacked a ship called El Buen Jesús. Before being caught, the captain threw his treasure into the sea and the Dutchman did not know until time after his loss.

In August 1614, the German privateer at the service of Holland George de Spielberg called Joris Van Spielbergen set sail from the port of Texel with a fleet of six ships, who anchored in the port of Valparaíso in 1615.. He had been informed by one of the captains of his ships of the presence of lights and the distant sound of a horn. Two hundred men landed attacking the town made up of three squalid buildings. The Spaniards defended themselves by firing at the landing boats hidden among the cliffs, then starting towards the ravines of the hills. The Dutch embarked and bombarded the beach, thus constituting the first bombardment that Valparaíso suffered.

In 1676 the construction of the Castillo de la Concepción began.

In 1682. One of the major consequences of the visits of corsairs is the declaration of Valparaíso as “Plaza Fuerte”, which begins the construction of several castles and forts. These sites never fired a single shot.

In 1684 the construction of the San José castle began in front of the Valparaíso bay, providing great identity to the sector.

The 8 of July of 1730 occurred a great earthquake of 8.75 on the Richter scale that hit the city of Valparaiso, as well as other places like Santiago and Rancagua. According to sources at the time, it lasted a quarter of an hour and generated a tsunami that affected areas ranging from the Peruvian city of Callao to the north, passing through Valparaíso (so far this is the only destructive tsunami in Valparaíso, flooding an area that goes from La Matriz Church in the south, to the current O’Higgins square in the north), Concepción, until reaching Valdivia in Chile in the south. This tsunami crossed the Pacific Ocean to destroy the Japanese province of Sendai.

The 17 of April of 1791, Ambrosio O’Higgins, Governor of Chile, establishes in Valparaiso the first Cabildo and points to “Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes de Puerto Claro” as the patron saint of Valparaiso. In addition, the name of the patron is proposed as a name for the city. Neighbors do not accept and complain to the King of Spain to keep the name of Valparaíso, which the King ratifies by royal decree of 1802, declaring it an official name.

Valparaíso remained a port town, inhabited sporadically (due to both natural disasters and damage caused by pirates), by no more than five thousand residents practically during all the years of the colonial era, with few houses, a church and a Pierbuilt by private initiative only in 1810, shortly before the de facto independence of Chile.

Due to the above, in Valparaíso, unlike other places in Chile and Latin America with similar antiquity, nothing that was built during the colonial era is preserved. Everything that can be seen in the city today was built after the independence of the country.

History of Valparaíso, Chile

Geography of Syria

Geography of Syria

General information about Syria

The official name is the Syrian Arab Republic. Located in the southwestern part of Asia. The area is 184,050 km2, the population is 16.7 million people. (2001). The official language is Arabic. The capital is the city of Damascus (1,394,322 people, according to the 1994 census). Public holiday – Evacuation Day April 17 (since 1946). The monetary unit is the Syrian pound.

Member of the UN (since 1945), Arab League (since 1945), etc.

Geography of Syria

Syria is located between 36° and 42° east longitude and 32° and 37° north latitude. In the northwest it is washed by the Mediterranean Sea. The length of the coastline is 193 km, the coastline is slightly indented. It borders Turkey in the north, Jordan in the south, Lebanon and Israel in the west, and Iraq in the east.

The territory of the country is divided into 4 main zones: the coastal plain, the mountain range in the west, the interior plains and the Syrian desert. In the west, two mountain ranges stretch, forming the mountains of Jebel Ansaria (height up to 1562 m) along the Mediterranean coast, the mountains of Kurd, Jebel Zawiya, Anti-Lebanon (height up to 2814 m) and Jebel el-Sheikh (the Arabic name for the Hermon mountain range, greater part of which is now in Israel). In the south of Syria there is a black basalt massif Jebel Druz. The coastal lowland with evergreen vegetation is 10–20 km wide. The east of the country is a hilly steppe, semi-desert and desert with occasional oases. The northeastern part of the country is occupied by the Jazira Desert.

The bowels of the country contain reserves of oil, phosphates, chromium, manganese and iron ores, rock salt, gypsum, and marble. Modern oil reserves are estimated at about 62 billion barrels.

The soils are mainly brown desert-steppe and gray soils.

According to Bridgat, the climate on the coast is subtropical, Mediterranean, with wet mild winters (average January temperature +12°С) and dry summers with an average temperature of +26°С. It is colder in the mountains, snow falls in winter. In the interior, the climate is dry continental, it is characterized by large seasonal temperature fluctuations, for example, in winter the temperature can vary from + 10 ° C at night to + 20 ° C during the day, and in summer the maximum temperature reaches + 45-50 ° C.

The Euphrates River flows through Syria from northwest to southeast for 675 km. A gigantic dam built in 1973 with the help of the USSR makes it possible to regulate the flow and prevent floods. The state border of Syria with Turkey and Iraq runs along the Tigris River for 50 km. The El Asi River originates in the mountains of Baalbek (Lebanon), flows through the valleys near the cities of Homs and Hama, in El Ghab and El Ruja. The length of the river through the territory of Syria is 325 km. The most significant of the inland rivers of Syria is the Barada (71 km). In various parts of Syria there are small and medium-sized lakes, most of which are endorheic, salty or saline.

The flora can be conditionally divided into two zones: desert (steppe) and Mediterranean. In the eastern, desert part of the country, shrubs, semi-shrubs, thorny grasses, wormwood and forbs, consisting mainly of ephemers, predominate. On the plateaus in the eastern and southern regions, typical steppe vegetation prevails. The slopes of the mountains are covered with forests (oak, pine, cypress, laurel), occupying approx. 3% of the country’s territory. As the height increases, the forests turn into alpine meadows. Palmyra grows in the oasis of Palmyra.

The animal world is comparatively poor. There are antelopes, gazelles, onagers (wild donkeys). Rarely you can meet a wild cat, lynx, fox, jackal. But in the steppe and desert regions, rodents are in abundance – jerboas, ferrets; many reptiles – snakes, lizards, chameleons. In the Euphrates valley and in some other areas where there are open reservoirs, many migratory birds settle for the winter. There you can meet colonies of flamingos, storks, herons, gulls nest.

The population of Syria

The population of Syria, according to the 1994 census, is 13,782,315 people. Birth rate 30.11‰, death rate 5.12‰; infant mortality 32.73 pers. per 1000 newborns. Average life expectancy is 69 years, incl. men – 67.9, women – 70.3.

Age structure of the population: 0-14 years old – 39.3%, 15 – 64 years old – 57.5%, 65 years and older – 3.2%. Urban population approx. fifty%. Retirement age: 60 for men, 55 for women. Competently 70.8% of the total population, incl. men – 85.7%, women – 55.8%.

Arabs make up to 90% of the population, the remaining 10% are mainly Kurds and Armenians, as well as Turks, Circassians. Languages: Arabic, Kurdish, Armenian.

Muslims make up 90%, Christians – 10% of the population. Among Muslims, representatives of the orthodox trend in Islam, the Sunnis, predominate. Among the Muslim minorities are Shiites-Imamits and adherents of Shiite sects – Ismailis, Alawites, Druze.

Geography of Syria

Geography of the Netherlands

Geography of the Netherlands

Located between 50°80′ and 52°30′ north latitude; 3°20′ and 7°10′ East. They are washed from the north and west by the waters of the North Sea. The length of the coastline is 451 km. They border on Belgium in the south and Germany in the east. The territory of the Netherlands includes the West Frisian Islands. Almost the entire territory of the Netherlands is a low-lying plain; The very word “Netherlands” means “low lands”. 2/3 of the territory is located at an altitude of up to 1 m above sea level; 1/3 is below this level (the lowest point is the Zuid Plaspolder – by 7 m) and only 2% of the territory is above 50 m (the highest point is Faalsberg – 322.5 m). There is a constant threat of flooding of low-lying areas during surges of the North Sea during storms. As a result of a catastrophic flood in 1282, the Zuider Zee was formed. Forests cover 7.6% of the country’s territory, mostly in the form of groves. Presented oak, beech, hornbeam, ash. The mouths of the Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt converging on the territory of the Netherlands form a vast common navigable delta. After the construction of a dam on the Zuider Zee, its southern part turned into a freshwater lake IJsselmeer, most of which is drained into fertile land – polders. In the forests there are squirrel, hare, marten, polecat, roe deer. Approximately 180 species of birds are found in the Netherlands; protected areas for mass wintering of waterfowl (geese, waders, gulls, etc.) have been created in the river delta. The North Sea is rich in fish – cod, herring. Among minerals is natural gas (explored reserves of 2 billion m3, 1st place in Western Europe). Oil is being produced on the Dutch part of the continental shelf. According to, there is coal, clay. The climate is mild maritime. The average temperature in January is -1-3 C°, in July +16-17 C°.

Population of the Netherlands

In terms of population, the Netherlands is the largest of the small Western European countries. 1st place in Western Europe and 3rd in the world in terms of population density: 393 people/km2, and in some areas – up to 850 people/km2. During 1980-2002, the population increased by 2.01 million people; annual growth in 2002 0.55%. High growth was determined by the characteristics of the natural movement of the population. The birth rate in the Netherlands, as in all developed countries, is low (2002 – 1.1‰); but mortality is at a low level (0.8‰). Child mortality 0.4 pers. per 1000 newborns, the average life expectancy is 78.6 years (men – 75.7 years, women – 81.6 years). The age structure is characterized by a tendency towards aging. In 2001, the proportion of people aged 0-14 years was 18.3%, 65 years and older was 13.9%. Retirement age: 65 for men, 60 for women. The ratio of men and women, practically unchanged since 1980, is 49.5:51.5. 82% of the population lives in cities, most of them live in the Randstad industrial, commercial and transport agglomeration, which includes Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Delft and Utrecht. In the 1980s-90s. immigration increased markedly in the Netherlands. Annual migration increase 0.25% (2002). Among the immigrants are people from Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles (12%), from Asia (22%) and from Africa (16%). The national composition of the population is very homogeneous. The vast majority (83%) are the Dutch and the Flemings, who are very close to them in terms of language and culture (in the provinces of Limburg and Brabant). In the north, in the provinces of Groningen and Friesland, a small Frisians (400 thousand people) live. 9% of the inhabitants are of non-European origin. Among the believing population there are 31% Catholics, 21% Protestants, 4.4% Muslims, and 3.6% others.

Geography of the Netherlands

Turkey Travel Guide

Turkey Travel Guide

First aid kit.
Before the trip, form and take a first aid kit with you, which will help you with minor ailments, save you time looking for medicines and get rid of the problems of communicating in a foreign language. In addition, many medicines may have different names in different countries.

We recommend taking with you:
– Painkillers and cardiovascular drugs;
– remedies for indigestion;
– choleretic;
– preparations against motion sickness in transport;
– remedies for insect bites;
– dressing material;
– waterproof adhesive plaster;
– barrier contraceptives;
– eye drops;
– Sun protection and skin care after sun exposure. In the first days of rest, we strongly recommend the use of these funds.

On April 16, 2011, the visa regime between Russia and Turkey was cancelled. According to the new rules, citizens of the Russian Federation can enter Turkey without a visa for a stay of up to 60 days.

Time coincides with Moscow.

The monetary unit of Turkey is the Turkish lira. The exchange rate is unstable, at the moment 1 $ = 6.50 TRY. Money can be imported in US dollars, euros or rubles, they are accepted in almost all exchange offices. You can exchange currency at exchange offices and banks. Bank branches are usually open on weekdays from 8:30 to 17 hours. Break – from 12:00 to 13:30.

There is no hourly work schedule in shops; during the tourist season, many shops are open until late at night.
It is customary to bargain in small shops and markets, you can bargain in large wholesale centers for the sale of leather and jewelry, as well as with taxi drivers.

All medical care in Turkey is paid, but if you have an insurance policy, the service is free of charge or with subsequent reimbursement of expenses according to the insurance policy (see the memo attached to the insurance policy). In the event of an insured event, you must contact the insurance company by phone numbers indicated in the insurance policy. Only with the direct notification of the insurance company and coordination by it of your actions will free (or with subsequent reimbursement of expenses) service be provided. If you plan to engage in extreme activities in Turkey, then take out a special insurance policy.

Mains voltage 220 V.

A car can only be rented if you have a driver’s license. All cars are insured with Casco. The minimum rental period is one day, mileage is not limited. Make sure the car is fully insured, including headlights and glass. Gasoline is bought independently. In the event of an accident, do not move the car until the arrival of the police. The police may not speak Russian or English and you will not be able to explain your version of the event, you must immediately inform the company where the car was rented and the representative of the host company about what happened. Don’t forget to bring your driver’s license, passport and car rental documents with you, as police checks are possible.

99% of the local population are Muslims.

The most popular purchases in Turkey are amulets against the evil eye, carpets (carpets are sold at every step, but you should buy only with a specialist – it is difficult to determine the quality yourself), ceramics (all kinds of cups and plates, vases, boxes and even painted cats and dogs), sweets (baklava of all varieties, Turkish delight, rose petal jam, marzipan, dried fruits and nuts), all kinds of spices, tea and tea set (not only black or green, but also apple, orange and berry. These, as well as other tea blends, are sold by weight in the bazaars, where you can choose your favorite flavor (they drink tea from interesting small tulip-shaped cups), jewelry (jewelry in Turkey is cheap and varied. It is worth paying attention to brooches in the form of flowers and birds.


You can take out of Russia without a bank certificate up to $ 10,000 per person. If you are exporting more than USD 10,000 per person, then you must have bank documents with you.
At the Turkish airport, be sure to include all electronic equipment, antiques and jewelry on the declaration (their presence can be checked upon departure). Duty-free import is allowed: 400 cigarettes, or 50 pieces of cigars, or 200 grams of tobacco, 5 (1000 ml each) or 7 (700 ml each) bottles of alcoholic beverages, of which no more than 3 can be of the same variety, cologne – 2 liters in uncorked bottles, perfume – 1 liter in uncorked bottles, gifts worth no more than $ 500, food within the limits of personal needs. The import of drugs, medicines containing a large dose of narcotic substances and weapons is prohibited.

Telephone communication in Turkey is very good and relatively inexpensive. You can call from the hotel, but it is more expensive than from the post office. You can buy a blue phone card for “100 units” and call the CIS from any street machine. It is better to buy cards at the post office or in large supermarkets. Post offices are open from 08:30 to 17:30, telephone call centers – until midnight. Mail identification marks – black on yellow PTT.
Cellular communication works great in Turkey. For calls to local numbers (for example, a guide in the city), it makes sense for mobile phone owners to buy a local SIM card for a few dollars, which justifies itself instantly.
You can contact Russia by +7 code, area code, subscriber’s phone number.
To call Turkey, dial + 10 90, area code.

The bus is the most popular means of communication within Turkey. The average ticket price in the city is 2.5-3 Turkish lira (0.5 US dollars). Taxi – the average cost for 1 km is 1.5 US dollars (payment by taximeter). At night (GECE) – from 24:00 to 6:00 there is a double tariff. Shuttle taxis operate from 06:00 am to 24:00 pm with a fixed fare. In small towns such as Belek, traffic ends at about 20:00 .

The tip system applies to waiters in bars and restaurants, maids in hotels, porters, guides. Tipping is optional, but if the customer is satisfied with the service, tipping is a sign of good taste. Almost always, the average tip is 10% of the bill. However, in expensive restaurants it is customary to leave up to 20%. In hotels, in taxis, they do not give tea, but the meter readings are rounded up.

for drinking it is recommended to use mineral water, which can be purchased in shops and bars of the hotel;
– we recommend storing jewelry, money and documents in a safe located in the room or in a safe at the reception desk;
– it is recommended to hand over the room key to the hotel reception. If the key is lost, the hotel administration should be notified immediately.

If you have any questions during your stay in Turkey, please contact our host, whose phone numbers are indicated in the voucher and information letter Police – 155 Info for tourists – 154 Ambulance – 112

Turkey Travel Guide

Bahamas Geography

Bahamas Geography

The Bahamas are not only clear sea waters and tempting waves, but also endless beaches, underwater tunnels, coral reefs of indescribable beauty and sunken shipwrecks.
Scattered over a vast area, washed by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, the Bahamas have long been considered a symbol of luxury and relaxation. Christopher Columbus first set foot on the islands of San Salvador in 1492. British settlers began to settle the islands in 1647 and already in 1783 the islands became a colony. With independence in 1973, the Bahamas began to intensively develop tourism and banking. One of the richest countries in the region, as it is often called – “Caribbean Switzerland”, a large offshore center (more than 400 banks are located on the islands), today the Bahamas are one of the largest resort areas in the Western Hemisphere.

Crystal Cay Marine Park Aquarium is the world’s largest man-made coral reef with an underwater observatory. The barrier reef off Andros Island is considered the third longest reef in the world.

The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is an archipelago with about 700 islands (Abaco, Acklins, Andros, Berry Islands, Bimini Islands, Cat, Eleuthera, Exuma, Grand Bahama, Big and Little Inagua, Crooked Island, Long Island, Mayaguana, Nassau, Ram-Key, San Salvador, Humentos, etc.) and 2500 reefs, of which only 30 are inhabited. An
archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean at a distance of about 90 km southeast of Florida and approximately the same distance north -East of Cuba, extends for 970 km from northwest to southeast, covering an area of ​​about 259 thousand square meters. km (land area about 13.9 thousand sq. km).
Most of the group’s islands are long and flat coral formations with occasional low, rounded hills. The highest point in the country is Mount Alvernia (63 m) on Cat Island. Most of the islands are covered with small pine forests, punctuated by scrublands with patches of rocky badlands, marshes and long sandy shores. Many of the lee (western) shores are lined with mangroves formed by the only tree that can survive in salt water.
Virtually all islands are surrounded by coral reefs and extensive sandbanks. Due to the limestone foundation of the islands, most of them are indented by the products of karst activity – giant wells, which are called “blue holes” here, are connected to each other and to the sea by an extended network of tunnels that open in underwater caves at depths of up to 180 m.

Tropical trade winds in the north and subtropical in the south. The temperature in summer ranges from +26 to +32 C. On the southern islands (Big and Small Inagua, Mayaguana, etc.), it is much warmer in summer than in the central part of the archipelago. The temperature on some days here can reach +40 C (from June to August), but the trade winds noticeably soften the heat throughout the country. In winter, the temperature ranges from +18 to +22 C with minimum temperatures up to +15 C (Little Abaco and other northwestern islands).
Precipitation is up to 800 mm with a mild rainy season from May to October. In winter, rains are infrequent, usually in the form of short but powerful showers lasting no more than a few hours. Hurricanes and tropical storms, periodically passing over the territory of the islands from May to November, bring heavy precipitation, accompanied by hurricane-force winds. The water temperature is usually +27 C in summer and about +23 C in winter.

The official language is English. Creole or “patois” is also common (it is especially widely used among immigrants from Haiti).

About 301 thousand people. Over 80% of the population of the islands are Africans and mulattos, up to 12% are of European origin, and about 3% are immigrants from other countries of the Caribbean and Asia.

State system: The
Commonwealth of the Bahamas is a constitutional parliamentary democracy within the British Commonwealth. The nominal head of state is the Queen of Great Britain, represented by the Governor General.

The vast majority of the population professes Christianity (Baptists – 35.4%, Anglicans – 15.1%, Catholics – 13.5%, etc.). Also, as if in parallel with Christianity, the traditional folk beliefs “obea” are widespread, originating in the Haitian “voodoo” and the Cuban “santeria”.

Bahamas Geography

Tourist Areas in Vietnam

Tourist Areas in Vietnam

– the capital, where there is a lot of greenery, lakes, pagodas and bed monuments
– A center of culture and statehood with a thousand-year history
– Informative and interesting: Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, Temple of Literature, Pagoda on one pillar, Lake of the Returned Sword, puppet theater on the water, shopping old quarters in the city center with a silk street.

– Fabulous bay with more than 3000 quaint islands, protected by UNESCO, where Vietnamese symbols of majestic nature are combined: water, moss-covered rocks and greenery
– Informative and interesting: Cruises on sailboats or luxury yachts, excursions to mysterious, uninhabited islands with caves and grottoes made of stalactites and stalagmites.
The best time to visit is from March to October

Hue is an imperial city.
– Ancient capital built by the last Nguyen royal feudal dynasty (1802-1945)
– Famous for its poetry, ancient temples, palaces, imperial citadel, tombs of emperors of the last royal dynasty and pagodas.
– Informative and interesting: a junk ride along the quiet and romantic Fragrant River, a costumed imperial dinner accompanied by folk music, a special cuisine of Central Vietnam.
The best time to visit is from May to October.

– Da Nang and Hoi An are located in the center of Vietnam, they are separated by the picturesque Hai Van Pass with a serpentine road. – in Da Nang
there is a unique Museum of Cham culture, which has preserved the ancient relics of the once great state of Champa – Informative and interesting: the coast of Da Nang and Hoi An with a wide strip of sandy beaches – a resort area with newly built hotels on the coastline Bathing season from May to July.

– One of the most popular resorts in Vietnam, it is sunny all year round
– Numerous islands along the coast, where daily cruises are arranged
– Informative and interesting: Po Nagar Cham towers, opportunities for underwater sports, diving and scuba diving, a park has been created on one of the islands entertainment Vinpearlland with an aquarium, water slides, a shopping gallery.
The best time to visit is September to May

– Fishing villages along the sea, sand hills, coconut groves, boat piers
– Along the coast of Muine there are many hotels in a variety of styles
– Informative and interesting: red canyon, sand dune walks, windsurfing, parasurfing, fishing, golf clubs.
The best time to visit is September to May

Chi Minh City – Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon) is called the “pearl of Indochina” where there is a noticeable influence of French culture, the city has many buildings of French architecture.
– an energetic city, an Asian business center with shops, hotels, shopping centers and all kinds of bars on the roofs of high-rise hotels
– Informative and interesting: Notre Dame de Saigon, Chinatown Cho Lon, Ben Thanh market, Kuti tunnels in the vicinity of the city where Vietnamese soldiers hid during Japanese occupation, a trip to the Mekong Delta – My Tho (the largest area for rice growing, fruit growing and breeding of river fish and shrimp), spicy and refreshing cuisine of South Vietnam.

– two islands in the south of Vietnam, ideal for diving and sea cruises
– Informative and interesting: Museum of the Revolution in Con Dao, the most delicate sandy beaches, mountains covered with virgin forests and impenetrable jungle.


There is no religious fanaticism and racial prejudice in the country, and travel around the country is generally safe. However, rickshaw rides after dark should be avoided. You should not carry large amounts of money with you, especially when visiting crowded places or markets. Shoes must be removed when entering a Buddhist temple. Photographing temples and other religious buildings should only be obtained with permission.

Vaccinations for tourists entering Vietnam are not required.


  • Ninh Thuan is a province on the coast of the South China Sea. Well-groomed beaches and warm azure water are the main reason why tourists come here.
  • The vibrant and colorful villages of Ninh Thuan are home to 28 different ethnic groups, each of which will introduce you to the rich culture of Vietnam.
  • Head to the hot spring health resorts of Krong Fa and Tan Son.
  • Get to know the nature of Vietnam in the Nui Chua National Park, where you will meet rare species of animals, birds and plants.

Tourist Areas in Vietnam

Venice, Italy

Venice, Italy

Venice has many faces, like a mirage emerging from the shining sea surface, its outlines change – either flashing in the sun with the multi-colored facades of ancient buildings, or disappearing in clouds of fog. The unbridled fun of the carnival and the colorful kaleidoscope of costumes and masks that reign in San Marco, Piazzetta and the Schiavoni embankment fall silent in the narrow streets in the depths of Venice. And then, only the echoes of rare steps and a dull splash of water in the canals immerse you in the mysterious and unreal world of this amazing city, covered with legends of bygone times. The names of many great creators are associated with Venice, including Casanova and Dante, Titian and Tintoretto, Vivaldi and Albinoni, Marco Polo and Byron, Shakespeare and Pushkin, Gogol and Tolstoy, Dumas and Hemingway. “I recognize, Venice, your genius, I find in everything a living object for new feelings and new thoughts… ”- Lord Byron wrote at the beginning of the 19th century. Centuries pass, epochs change, but the extraordinary aura of this magical city continues to amaze with the novelty of feelings, thoughts and sensations.

Geography and location
Venice is a unique city in northern Italy, in the Veneto region, and a port on the Adriatic Sea. The historical center of the city is located on 118 islands of the Venetian lagoon, separated by 150 canals and channels, through which about 400 bridges are thrown. The population of Venice is 279.4 thousand people, and the city is divided into 6 districts: San Marco, Cannaregio, Castello, Dorsoduro, San Polo, Santa Croce

Climate The
climate of Venice is mild, subtropical: cool in winter and very warm in summer. The average daily temperature in January is +2.5°C, and in July +22.7°C. At the same time, the air has high humidity, and there are often thunderstorms with heavy rains. During sea tides (here they are called “aqua alta” – “high water”), the lowest part of Venice, located in the area of ​​Piazza San Marco, is covered with water.

The city got its name from the name of the ancient Veneti tribe, who inhabited the Northern Adriatic in the second half of the 2nd millennium BC. e. They say that Venice appeared from the foam of the sea in 421, and exactly at noon. However, according to history, an urban settlement on the islands of the Venetian lagoon began to be created in the second half of the 6th century. Initially, the center of the settlement was on the islands of Malamocco and Torcello, but from the 8th century. moved to modern location. In 697, the power of a doge elected for life (head of state, from Italian doge) was established in Venice. In total, 120 doges were elected in the entire history of the city – the last, Lodovico Manin, abdicated in 1797 when Venice was conquered by Napoleon. In 1805, Venice passed into the Italian kingdom of Napoleon, and in 1815 became part of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, owned by Austria. In 1866, Austria ceded Veneto to France, which in turn annexed it to the new Italian kingdom. Today Venice is a unique monument of architecture, history, culture and art, and therefore the city and the Venetian Lagoon are included in the World Heritage List.

Venice Carnival (Carnevale di Venezia)

Every year, about two weeks before Ash Wednesday (the day of the beginning of Lent in the Catholic Church), a grandiose action begins in Venice, which attracts tens of thousands of tourists from all over the world – the annual Venice Festival. The roots of the Venetian carnival originate in the ancient Roman festivals in honor of the god Saturn – the annual Saturnalia, held annually after the harvest. During the celebrations, both slaves and masters mixed up in the crowd and general mass celebrations, and in order to hide belonging to different social classes, the participants in the celebrations put on masks.
The first mention of the Venetian carnival dates back to 1094 AD. e. Masks and costumes became the main attribute of the carnival, but masks were allowed to be worn only during the celebration, otherwise severe punishments were applied. At the beginning of the XIX century. interest in the carnival began to subside, but in the 1970s the Italian government decided to revive the tradition of the annual Venetian carnival. Today, the carnival has regained its former scope and brilliance. Carnival begins with an old feast in honor of the release of Venetian girls kidnapped by Spanish pirates. Comedy performances are staged in St. Mark’s Square, and then an impressive carnival procession follows. Throughout Venice, during the days of the carnival, concerts, performances in the style of commedia dell’arte, costume performances are held, and balls are held in magnificent palaces-palazzos.

Venice Film Festival

No less striking and world-famous annual event is the Venice Film Festival. One of the oldest in the world, founded in 1932 on the initiative of the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, the film festival has been held annually on the island of Lido since 1934. The main prize of the Venice Film Festival is the Golden Lion, and based on the results of all sections of the festival, the Luigi Di Prize is also awarded Laurentis. Among the numerous laureates of the Venice Film Festival there are many representatives of the cinema of our country. So, only in the new millennium, prizes were received by: the films “Return” by Andrei Zvyagintsev (“Golden Lion” 2003), “Paper Soldier” by Alexei German Jr. (“Silver Lion” 2008), “Clown” by Irina Evteeva and “Oil” by Rustam Ibragimbekov (“Silver Lion” 2002 and 2003),

Venice, Italy

Alaska – Rivers, Waterfalls, Fjords & Forests

Alaska – Rivers, Waterfalls, Fjords & Forests

According to acronymmonster, Alaska is the largest state in the US and is barely populated. There are over 100 state parks to explore the wilderness. Alaska is a country with 5000 glaciers, 3000 rivers, waterfalls, fjords, forests, steppes, meadows and 3 million lakes, a land of contrasts.

With a fifth of the American territory, Alaska measures 3,862 km from east to west and 2,285 km from north to south. Alaska is bordered by the Antarctic Ocean in the north, the Yukon region in the east, British Columbia in the southeast, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific in the south, and the Bering Sea and Lake Chukchi in the west. Only a quarter of the state is accessible by road, with many parts requiring a plane or boat to visit.

Moose, musk ox, caribou, wolves and bears live in the forests and tundra areas, while whales, porpoises and sea lions live on the coasts. The largest city is Anchorage with around 225,000 residents. The capital Juneau is the only capital in the United States that has no road connection and can only be reached by boat or plane.

The official state bird is the “Willow Ptarmigan”, a small, arctic grouse that lives in the swampy areas of the tundra. The mosquito is the most widespread and therefore referred to as the unofficial “state bird”!

In 2009 Alaska will celebrate the 50th anniversary of joining the United States. All visitors who will be 50 years old in 2009 were therefore allowed one day for free with the Alaska Railroad drive.

Climate and Weather

Alaska’s weather conditions are unpredictable. You should therefore carry a wide variety of clothing with you. The southern regions are mostly wet and mild, while the interior is cold and dry. Arctic, short summers in the north alternate with windy snow landscapes, freezing cold and months of darkness.

Main sights

Denali National Park
PO Box 9
Denali Park, Alaska 99755

Mount McKinley rises here, at 6,193 m, the highest point in North America. There are shuttle bus tours, you can watch game, hike and climb. You can find an article about Denali National Park here on our website.

Glacier Bay National Park

The park is 160 km west of Juneau and is not accessible by road. It is one of the most diverse and attractive protected areas. Sixteen imposing glaciers flow into the bay here. You can find more information here.

Alaska Marine Highway
The Alaska Marine Highway in the south offers an opportunity to visit the remote island world. Passengers can board at the port of their choice and continue their voyage after any length of stay. The decks are heated and covered and the cabins are well equipped. Glazed sun decks provide a clear view of the landscape. More information at and


When the west coast of the United States is mentioned, almost everyone thinks of the sunny state of California first . There, where the beaches are just as beautiful as the Beach Boys and the Bay Watch Girls, where the waves and the surfing fun never end.

West Coast
Alaska | Hawaii | California | Oregon | Washington

In fact, California has a lot more to offer than these stereotypes (and there are!) And the West Coast isn’t all California. Even Washington is part of the example of this. In the far north-west lies Alaska and in the south there is an island paradise, so to speak, as an outpost to the coast, which belongs to the United States as the state of Hawaii.

Please dress warmly!

Alaska is definitely one of the most exciting travel destinations you can ever go to in the USA. Of course, if you are looking for a classic summer vacation, you should keep your hands off Alaska. This country is something for nature lovers, for outdoor freaks, for adventurers and explorers – it is nothing for sun worshipers. Anyone visiting Alaska is visiting the largest state in the United States and at the same time the least populated. Space and loneliness will shape this journey. Less than a million people live in Alaska, half of them in Anchorage, the largest city in the country. By the way, the most pleasant temperatures are around Fairbanks. There the thermometer can climb up to 30 degrees for a few days in summer – if you have a good summer. Both Anchorage and Fairbanks are the hubs of Alaska, from here you can easily set off to more distant regions. Alaska is a land of overwhelming beauty and purity. Here you can experience pure nature, but must also cope with the inconveniences that it brings with it. Alaska is the ideal travel destination, especially for tourists who want to get closer to the Arctic.

On trails to Jimi Hendrix

In comparison, the state of Washington is much more “civilized”. It got its name, of course, from the first President of the USA, George Washington. The same applies to the capital of the USA, Washington DC (the abbreviation stands for District of Columbia), which is, however, in the east of the USA. This is a fact that sometimes confuses even Americans. In order to keep confusion as low as possible, the country is often simply referred to as the “Washington State”. If tourists from Germany immediately feel at home in Washington State, then that can be explained. With over 20 percent, Americans of German origin make up the largest population group here. Washington State has a lot to offer its guests from all over the world. Three national parks waiting to be hiked. Moderate climatic conditions are just as inviting as the altitude differences that are relatively easy to overcome. Seattle, a city that has developed into a pulsating metropolis, is ideal for the urban counter-program. Music fans should be interested to know that the city has erected a memorial to its “son” Jimi Hendrix. So that your hiking gear is complete, we have created a checklist for a hiking vacation in the USA.

California – wine and waves

South of Washington, it goes through Oregon to THE dream destination of many travelers to the USA: California. Endless beaches, a seemingly always shining sun and of course, not to forget 5-star destinations like San Francisco and Los Angeles, beckon here. The Pacific and its sometimes really breathtaking coastline are just as worth a visit as the relaxed lifestyle of the Californians. With San Francisco one of the most famous cities in the world is waiting for tourists. Gourmets from all over the world also meet here, because the city has an extraordinary density of excellent restaurants. Those who are more interested in stars than star cuisine can go to Los Angeles and Hollywood do not miss. Here the guest still experiences a fascinating mix of success, vanity, luxury and failed dreams. By the way, the Californian hinterland also has its charms. Wine lovers please take the time to visit the Sonoma Valley and Napa Valley wine regions.

Aloha in the ocean

If you are lucky enough to travel to Hawaii, you will be intoxicated without wine. Even the names sound like wanderlust, waves, flower chains and friendly people. You land at Honolulu International Airport, which is on the island of Oahu. From there it could theoretically go straight to Waikikki Beach. Or should you travel to one of the other islands that make up the state of Hawaii? For example to Maui with its breathtaking landscapes? To Hawaii Island with its volcano? To Kauai with its legendary good air, or, or, or. Who made the long way to Hawaii you should prepare yourself well for this unique group of islands. It’s so diverse that it would be a shame to miss something that might be in line with your own interests.


Myanmar Economy

Myanmar Economy

Burma is essentially an agricultural country. Agricultural production, concentrated in the floodplains, has its main harvest in rice. About 7,000,000 tons are produced, a quantity that leaves a large margin for export. Where the rainfall is below 1000 mm., And therefore throughout the arid district, non-irrigated cultivation replaces rice with millet, sesame, groundnuts, cotton and legumes. Throughout the country, fruits, tobacco and forage plants are grown for local use. But Burma has possibility of a much greater agricultural development and official calculations indicate as many as 20 million hectares of wasteland and farmland against 6 1 / 2cultivated (excluding the territory of the Shan states). Of the latter, rice occupies 4,250,000 ha., Sesame 405,000, millet 344,000, various legumes 344,000, pistachios 129,000, cotton 121,000.

Small humped oxen are kept everywhere for pack animals and for plowing: in the delta and in the more humid districts, the stronger buffalo takes over. Goats are numerous in the dry district. An important aid to food is provided by fish, which has many edible species, both in rivers and on the coasts: the most valuable is bekti.

The major mineral product is the oil, which in the period 1921-25 has fomito an average of 276 1 / 2 million gallons (249 gallons = 1 metric ton). Mention has already been made of tin and tungsten, silver galenes and gems: to these we must add the famous Chinese jade, which is obtained from northern Burma and exported to China via the internal route of Mogaung and Bhamo.

From time immemorial the main routes for internal communications have been given by the Irawady with its tributaries. The railways (2,815 kilometers in 1925) serve more as a complement: they are owned by the province, but managed by Burma Railways Ltd. The most important goes from Rangoon to Mandalay, where it is interrupted by the course of the Irawady, but continues on the other shore of this, continuing up to Myitkyina. There is no railway communication with external countries and also the center of the oil basin, Yenangyaung, is accessed by river. The ordinary road network is in very bad conditions: there is not even one suitable for trucks, and, where there is no railway or river, the traveler has to use ox-drawn wagons, elephants or mules, and it is difficult for him to do so. more than 25-30km. per day. Outside of Rangoon and Mandalay there is a lack of hotels: however, there are government houses, where you are welcomed for a small fee, but you have to provide for food and bed yourself. Most of the villages consist of a number of quadrangular huts built of vertical planks and bamboo. The civil head is the hugyi, chosen by the village and recognized by the government.

Indigenous industries include cotton spinning and weaving, as the cheap cottons of England and Japan have nearly eliminated silk fabrics (especially in Amarapura); the lacquer industry (Pagan), the working of silver, carved wood, ceramics a little everywhere. Among the highly organized industries are forestry, oil refineries (Rangoon), silver and lead foundries (Namtu).

The main exported products are: rice, oil, timber, cotton. hides and hides, metals and minerals, legumes, rubber, lacquer; those imported: cottons, cars, household goods, coal, silk, sugar. In 1925-26 the province’s total maritime traffic was nearly 100 million pounds (9200 million lire). 86% of it passes through Rangoon; other notable ports are: Bassein, west of the delta, the port of rice; Akyab, outlet of the Arakan; Moulmein, Tavoy and Mergui serving the Tenasserim. A third of the export goes to India, more than another third to other countries of the British Empire and just a quarter to foreign countries. Import half comes from India, 1 / 5from foreign countries and the rest from other countries of the British Empire. From Italy, Burma imports cotton and wool fabrics, motors and electrical equipment, exports rice, leathers, paraffin wax and pistachio oil. The current currency in the country is that of India.

Myanmar Economy

Vietnam Cinema

Vietnam Cinema

In the first decade of the twentieth century, the French established the first screening rooms. Their commitment was concentrated above all in the field of exercise, while the production activity was reduced to current affairs films and geographical documentaries. In the 1920s the first feature films with a subject came: Kim Van Kieu (1923) shot by Frenchman EA Famechon with Vietnamese technicians and actors, Tu-Phu di hoi vo (“A bride for Tu-Phu”, 1925), Giai thoai Ba De (“The beautiful story of Signora De”, 1929), made by French based on stories drawn from local tradition and literature.

Alongside some failed experiences of collaboration between Chinese and Vietnamese (in particular the film Canh dong ma, “The flower of the cemetery”, released in 1938), the first attempts to create an entirely Vietnamese cinema, through the foundation of local film companies, were located at the end of the Thirties, which however failed to equip themselves with structures and infrastructures adequate. The Japanese invasion of 1940 stopped all turmoil and only from 1946 the Viet-Minh became promoters of a national cinema, directly linked to the war of liberation against France. Numerous projection units circulating around the country were set up, but production was reduced to propaganda documentaries. In 1953, the National Society of Cinema and Photography of Vietnam was founded by the government of Ho Chi Minh, with the task of supporting and promoting revolutionary culture. Chung mot dong song (“We live on the banks of the same river”), a love story between two young people who live on opposite sides of the river that divides the country in two.

While in Southern Vietnam the local anti-Communist production was open to the influences of American cinema and neighboring South-East Asia, Vietnam of the North increased the national film culture by creating studios, schools and associations, and increasing the number of the films produced. In the sixties and seventies the works dedicated to the re-enactment of the resistance predominate (Chim van khuyen, “The Golden Oriole “, 1962, by Nguyên Van Thong and Tran Vu; Chi tu Hau, “The fourth Miss Hau”, 1963, by Pham Ky Nam ; Vi Tuyen 17 ngay va dem, “17th parallel, day and night”, 1972, and Em be Hanoi, “The girl from Hanoi”, 1974, by Hai Ninh), to the reconstruction of the country and to the, “With the Lucs”, 1970, by Tran Vu). With the reunification of the Vietnam in 1975, the production of the South also conformed to the line of political commitment. The films of Hong Sen, one of the greatest personalities of contemporary Vietnamese cinema, author, among other things, of Canh dong hoang (“Terra devastata”, 1979), a short story of war, and of Vung gio xoay (“The region of cyclones”, 1980) on the problems of collectivization.

Other directors working in the 1980s include Phu My Ngiem, Dang What Minh, author of Bao gio cho toi (“October does not want to return”, 1987), and Ho Quong Minh, a Vietnamese with Swiss citizenship who in 1986 was returned home to shoot Karma, based on the novel by a local writer, Nguy Ngu. Of Dang What Minh we also mention Tro ve (“The Return”, 1994), in which the tragic split of the country is reflected behind a love triangle. French-trained, the Vietnamese Tran Anh Hung, in Hivo since 1988, won the Caméra d’or award in 1993 at Cannes with his debut feature film Mui du du xanh (“The scent of green papaya”). and in 1995, in Venice, the Lion of(“Cycle”).

Vietnam Cinema

Switzerland Literature in French and Italian

Switzerland Literature in French and Italian

French language literature

The first eminent personalities of French-speaking Swiss literature also belong to the eighteenth century, but the most notable writers for their philosophical interests (EL de Muralt, J.-. J. Burlamaqui, J.-J. Rousseau), or scientific (C . Bonnet, HB de Saussure) rather belong, by right, to the more general European culture. It is remarkable that the most salient feature of French-speaking Swiss literature continues to be, even in the following period, the attention to problems relating to man, and therefore the broad problematic (economic, philosophical, moral) present not only in the greatest theorists of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries ( de Staël, B. Constant, Sismondi), but also in the following A. Vinet, AE Cherbuliez, V. de Gasparin, C. Sécrétan, Madame de Pressensé, J.-É. Naville with his son H.-A. Naville, philosopher and epistemologist, É. Rod, and most recently D. de Rougemont. M. Monnier and his son Philippe deserve a separate mention for the extensive attention devoted to the social and cultural problems of Italy, the linguist F. de Saussure, the psychologist J. Piaget. ● Another strand of French-speaking Swiss culture is that of criticism and non-fiction, in which, in addition to the aforementioned Monnier and É. Rod, must be reported: P. Godet ; P. Seippel; L. Dumur, co-founder of the Mercure de France ; E. Gilliard, founder in Lausanne, together with the art critic P. Budry, the poet and writer CF Ramuz and others, of the innovators Cahiers vaudois (1914-19); M. Raymond ; A. Béguin, founder in 1941 of the Cahiers du Rhône; G. Poulet, J. Rousset, J. Starobinski, exponents of the Geneva School. If not much authentically Swiss is found in several of the writers cited, as indeed in HF Amiel and B. Cendrars, who were among the most eminent figures expressed by the culture of the country, respectively in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, there are numerous writers who have decidedly oriented themselves towards French and cosmopolitan culture: V. Cherbuliez ; G. de Pourtalès; the poet CA Cingria, animator of the Geneva magazine La voile latine (1904-10); R. de Traz, founder with J. Chenevière of the Revue de Genève; the novelist and playwright A. Cohen, born in Greece but naturalized Swiss; G. Haldas, poet, essayist, translator of U. Saba and author of autobiographical stories; G. Piroué. Worthy of interest, however, is a whole rich production more intimately circumscribed to the natural and social environment of Switzerland. Among the poets, especially J. Olivier, founder of the Revue suisse (1838-61); the symbolist H. Spiess; PH Matthey; G. Roud, translator of F. Hölderlin and Novalis; E.-H. Crisinel; and again G. Trolliet, M. Chappaz, P. Jacottet, translator of G. Leopardi and G. Ungaretti. In fiction, in addition to R. Toepffer, the aforementioned Godet and Monnier, and P. Girard, also author of poetic collections, the aforementioned Ramuz stands out above all, in whose stories the eternal struggle between man and nature is reflected. In the footsteps of Ramuz are C.-F. Landry, M. Zermatten, G. Borgeaud, J.-P. Monnier, J. Chessex, poet, novelist, essayist, as well as founder in 1964 of the magazine Écriture. ● In the literary panorama of the 20th century. the production of some writers occupies an important place: M. Saint-Hélier, author of two cycles of novels constructed with an elaborate associative technique and long monologues; C. Colomb (pseudonym of M.-L. Reymond), in whose work the nouveau roman is prefigured; A. Rivaz (pseudonym of A. Golay), attentive to the problem of the female condition; CS Bille, novelist and poet; the feminist A. Cuneo; TO THE. Grobéty, which moves in the line of N. Sarraute. Among the playwrights we remember: F. Chavannes; R. Morax, founder of the Théâtre du Jorat (1903); the aforementioned Ramuz, whose Histoire du soldat (1918) was set to music by I. Stravinskij, and Cohen; B. Liègme; W. Weideli; M. Viala. Also worth noting: the novelist J. Mercanton; the poet J. Cuttat; the poet and essayist M. Eigeldinger; the narrator and playwright R. Pinget ; Y. Velan, animator of the dedicated magazine Rencontre (Lausanne, 1950-53); the surrealist poets A. Voisard (next to R. Char) and V. Godel; the novelist and essayist E. Barilier.

Italian language literature

In the Italian China, the Grisons gave a modest development to the dialectal literature; the Canton of Ticino, which maintained its spiritual adherence to Italian origins constant, had, starting from the 16th century, prestigious writers such as the humanist F. Cicereio, the polygraph P. Gaudenzi, the poet GB Riva, and F. Soave, popularizer of the sensory theories and teacher of A. Manzoni. ● But it was only in the 19th century, with the achievement of the constitutional reform (1830) and the awareness of its historical function, that the Canton of Ticino experienced a political-cultural awakening and produced its own substantial literature. From China Franscini drew impulse a thriving tradition of historical studies, fueled by P. Peri and later by A. Manzoni, A. Pioda, B. Bertoni, found in E. Motta its most accomplished representative. Of great importance is the work of the Dante artist GA Scartazzini and the linguist C. Salvioni. The awakening is also observed in the purely literary field, where among theater authors such as A. Pedrazzini, and storytellers such as G. Anastasi, attentive to local political struggles, A. Nessi, linked to the Milanese Scapigliatura, and many others, stand out, in the twentieth century, the figures of the poet and lyric narrator F. Chiesa, by G. Galgari, vigorous novelist and essayist, founder and director (1941-62) of the Italian-speaking Switzerland magazine, and by G. Zoppi, cantor of the mountain world. The verses permeated with religious spirit by V. Abbondio are also inspired by nature. ● In the middle of the 20th century, we can distinguish, among the poets, G. Orelli who moves in the area of ​​postermeticism, A. Pedrali, P. Martini, A. Casé, also known as the narrator. Writers such as A. Jenni, T. Poma, F. Filippini, also active as a painter, G. Bonalumi move between fiction and non-fiction. In fiction, we mention Giovanni Orelli, Giorgio’s cousin and novelist of undoubted originality, sensitive to socio-political issues, the writers A. Ceresa, A. Felder, F. Jaeggy, and again, witnesses of a local reality whose marginality they experience with a strong sense of belonging, E. Pedretti, A. Alberti, A. Nessi, C. Nembrini, A. Buletti. In non-fiction, alongside G. Fasani, also appreciated as a poet, and P. Fontana, we remember above all G. Pozzi, a European literary critic.

Switzerland Literature in French and Italian

Popular Destinations in Turkey

Popular Destinations in Turkey


Each Turkish resort is beautiful in its own way. Kusadasi, which means “bird island”, is deservedly called the pearl of the Aegean Sea. Today it would be more appropriate to call Kusadasi a tourist island. That is why our company has been offering holidays in this resort in Turkey for many years.

For detailed information, see the file “Useful information on Turkey”.

The main attraction of the city is Guverdzhin (Pigeon Island), on which stands the Genoese fortress. At dusk, illuminated by colorful lights, it sparkles and beckons you like a precious decoration lying on the transparent mirror of the bay. The cleanest beaches invite you to relax by the sea, and the modern equipped harbor is attractive for yachtsmen. You should definitely visit the Aqua Park and, of course, do not forget to look into the Caravanserai. Nowadays, it has become a hotel and restaurant offering a spectacular performance called “Turkish Night”. Nightlife lovers are waiting for discos and nightclubs. And of course, the city’s shopping centers will not leave anyone indifferent, because due to the proximity to the industrial Izmir, here you can inexpensively buy not only souvenirs, but also high-quality industrial goods (clothes, shoes, etc.).
However, tourists from all over the world go to Kusadasi not only for the sea, sun and relaxation. From here it is equally easy to get to places whose names we remember from the time of school – Ephesus and Miletus, Didyma and Priene, Aphrodisias and Hierapolis.


Marmaris is famous for having the longest promenade among Turkish resorts – about four kilometers, with restaurants, cafes, clubs 15-20 meters from the water. It goes continuously from the huge marina for yachts to the mountain that separates Marmaris from Icmeler.
Even Istanbul with a population of 15 million and the Bosphorus does not have such a long embankment.

On this very embankment you can find a bar or a restaurant to your liking, they go there in a row wall to wall and all are deployed towards the sea. Cuisine – for every taste – both local and European, and sea and vegetarian.

Here, an attraction not for the faint of heart, which is called the ejection seat, rises to the evening sky. ejection seat. On pillars as high as a 15-story building, a ball made of pipes is suspended on rubber cables, in which a double chair is held. Two wishing to fasten themselves to the chairs and the ball is shot up, i.e. you ejected from a combat aircraft. With a friend, if she serves in the same unit.
At the same time, the chair rotates terribly in all directions and flies up and down on rubber cables for a long time, until it loses all energy and goes down, having previously shaken out all the brains, the contents of the stomach and bladder from the volunteers. Most of all, the crowd of onlookers is crazy, which listens to the heart-rending, obscene cries of the pilots, synchronized with the movement of the catapult, and looks at the changing expressions of their faces on the big screen.

Since the sea in Marmaris comes right to the bars and restaurants, you can always take a break from dancing and swim, especially since the depth is gradually gaining there, and there are no big waves due to the fact that the bay is separated from the sea by an island.
And all this against the backdrop of a beautiful sea bay, where Admiral Nelson led his squadron 200 years ago. Whether before the battle of Aboukir, or before a quarrel with Lady Hamilton. Some historians believe that the storm of the seas refused to comply with the order of the command to return his squadron to the Balearic Islands, not because of Emma Hamilton, but because of the taverns on the Marmaris embankment.

Marmaris was built on the ancient site of Picos, a city whose creation dates back to 3500 BC. In ancient times, Marmaris was a fishing village. Marmaris was ruled by many peoples, among which were the Egyptians, Ionians, Dorians, Romans, and in 1425 it became part of the Ottoman Empire.

There are still traces of the reign of the Ottoman Suleiman the Magnificent in the city. Suleiman the Magnificent during the campaign of Rodian built a castle here – the Caravanserai of the 16th century, which today houses the archaeological museum of Marmaris. Here Suleiman gathered 200,000 warriors to attack and besiege Rhodes in 1522. The Agha Abraham Mosque dating back to 1789 is also worth a visit.

Marmaris is famous for its natural beauty, mountains clad in pine groves and a fantastic coastline full of small cozy coves.

The Phosforlu sea cave is very close. It is very convenient to go on excursions from Marmaris to other resorts in Turkey, for example, to Bodrum, Kaunos and Fethiye.

One of the favorite tourist attractions is Ataturk Park – one of the most beautiful parks in Turkey. It is located to the east of Marmaris. Ataturk is filled with incense and other dizzying scents.


The Uludag resort, located 35 km from the famous Bursa, the first capital of the Ottoman Empire, has long been well-deserved fame among lovers of winter holidays. First-class hotels, excellent service, developed infrastructure, mineral springs, magnificent nature, all this attracts vacationers.

A distinctive feature of Uludag is that here almost every hotel has its own lifts, the cost of using which is included in the price. But this does not mean that other lifts will be closed to you. For lifts that do not belong to your hotel, payment is made for each lift at the lower station. You can purchase a subscription for several lifts or days.

In winter, Uludag is an excellent ski resort, and in summer there is a great opportunity for picnics, hiking and cycling tours through the Turkish National Park. The ski season here is 120 days a year. The most favorable period for rest is from December 20 to March 20. At the beginning of the winter season in these places there is fine dry snow, and at the end – wet.

Both beginners and experienced skiers will find slopes to their taste here. Kids here for the first time get up on skis under the supervision of experienced instructors.


Palandoken – the youngest ski resort in Turkey – is located near the border with Armenia, 6 km from Erzurum. Palandoken is suitable for skiers of different skill levels.
Palandoken is the official training camp site for the Turkish Alpine Ski Team.
The skiing season is from October to May. The best time is from December 10 to May 10.
The highest point is 3176 m. The ski area is from 2200 to 3176 m. The elevation difference is 976 m.
40 km of slopes: blue slopes – 7, red slopes – 8, black slopes – 2. The longest route is 11 km. 7 lifts, the throughput of which is 6,300 people per hour. 2 children’s lifts.
Heli-ski. There are slopes for snow skiing.
Hire, qualified ski instructors.
For snowboarders, there are tracks in the resort, for the development of which it is not a pity to spend 2-3 days. After that, you can get out to the virgin lands. Snow-covered couloirs in the gorges and slopes away from the ski lifts are completely at the disposal of snowboarders.

Popular Destinations in Turkey

Italy Rivers and Lakes

Italy Rivers and Lakes

Italy is a southern European state, corresponding to one of the best identified European natural regions, given the clarity of the maritime and land borders: the Alpine chain, with which it connects to central Europe (from W to E: France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia). As a natural region, between the Alpine watershed and the three seas (Adriatic, Ionian and Ligurian-Tyrrhenian) that surround it, the Italy (with the islands lying on its continental shelf) has an area of ​​just over 300,000 km 2. Some continental regions (Canton Ticino, Istria), island regions (Corsica) and two autonomous states (San Marino and Vatican City) included in these limits are not part of the Italian state.

The Latin name Italia is of Oscan origin (Viteliu). The ancients derived it from that of an enotrio prince, Italo, or put it in relation with Lat. vitulus “calf”. According to modern scholars, Italy would mean “land of the Itali” and the Itali would have been an Italic population whose totem was the calf. The name initially designated (Ecateo) the southern extremity of Calabria; later (Herodotus) it extended to Metaponto and Taranto; then, in the 3rd century. BC, to Campania; shortly after, to the whole peninsula south of the Arno and Esino rivers and finally to the Alpine chain (Polybius and Cato). The official sanction of the name came with Octavian in 42 BC; the administrative union of the islands with Diocletian (Italian diocese). The geographical meaning of the name has always remained in use ever since, beyond the historical-political events.

The rich Italian hydrography involves a vast underground network, thanks to the great extension of limestone formations and coarse floods that feed mostly perennial streams.

Many lakes are scattered throughout the territory, especially in the summit areas of the Alpine mountains (circus lakes, generally small), in the pre-Alpine area (glacial excavated lakes, including Lake Garda, the largest of Italy), in the regions of recent volcanism (crater lakes), in the coastal strips characterized by dune strings (coastal lakes).

Italian rivers convey an average of 155 billion minto the sea every year of which 31% belongs to the Po system, 32% to the other Adriatic rivers, 26% to the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian ones, just 4% to the Ionian ones and 7% to the rivers of the islands. The glacial and nival regimes, typical of the watercourses fed by the melting of glaciers and the snowpack, have maximum flow rates in the summer months and minimum rates in winter; the fluvial regime, in the rivers that originate below the persistent snow limit, has flows conditioned by the rainfall regime. There is also a series of mixed regimes, regulated not only by rainfall but by the existence or otherwise of lakes, as well as by the possible presence of limestone rocks, which release rainwater even in periods of absence of rainfall.

The Po, the largest Italian river, is 652 km long and has a basin of about 70,000 km, collecting the waters of a large part of the internal side of the Alps and the external one of the Northern Apennines; its average flow, not far from the mouth, is estimated at 1460 m 3/ s; the amount of sediment that leads to the sea is abundant and has built a delta of considerable size. The slope of the bed, in a large part of the Po valley, is modest; 150 km from the mouth the river is only 2 m above sea level, in Pavia it already has a level higher than that of the plain, and from here it is dammed up to the mouth, where the elevation reaches 6 m. The second Italian river is the Adige, analogous to the Po for the hanging bed, the embankments, the sudden floods in autumn. The rivers of the Adriatic-Ionian side have a short course, modest extension of the basin, accentuated summer lean, conspicuous contribution of solid materials. The tributary rivers of the Tyrrhenian Sea often have longitudinal trunks, connected by intermontane basins or by cross sections, so they are characterized by a longer course and a more extensive basin. Typical are the Arno and the Tiber. The streams of Sicily, Sardinia and Calabria depend on rainfall, so they have conspicuous floods in winter and low summer temperatures; some are completely dry in summer, such as the Calabrian and Sicilian ‘rivers’, with a very wide and pebbled riverbed, due to the violent floods that occur as a result of rainfall.

Italy Rivers and Lakes

General Characteristics of the New Russian Economy

General Characteristics of the New Russian Economy

After the collapse of the USSR, it was easy to predict that a prolonged economic crisis would hit its successor states. First of all because the productive system of the USSR, whose bankruptcy management had worsened in the spiral of the arms race, was already in crisis – even if certain statistical devices, combined with the scarce power of control on the part of public opinion, limited the evidence of such a crisis – to the point of generating the need for perestroika (restructuring) in the last and most enlightened leader Gorbachev Soviet (1985). Secondly, because the transition from one system to another made a transition phase inevitable, in which the “plan” ceased to function before the “market” came into operation.

The latest data, or rather the latest evaluations, on the consistency of the gross national product per capita in Russia speak of 3,220 US dollars in 1991, a figure that would place the country in a slightly higher position than that of the major Latin countries. Americans (Brazil, Mexico and Argentina were around 2800-2900), but very far from that of Western European countries (mostly between 16,000 and 24,000 dollars per capita). The external debt would amount to 80 billion dollars in 1993, which is the fourth most important in the world after Mexico, Brazil and Indonesia. The composition of the active population (1992) is now close to that typical of Western countries, having greatly reduced the rate of agricultural workers (less than 15%) and also that of industry (formerly dominant and now slightly higher than 40%), and that of the tertiary sector (45%) is relatively inflated. But if from 1991-92, the last few years valid for reasonable international comparisons, we turn to internal data compared over time precisely in the years of transition, we find: negative growth rates starting from 1990; a decline in net material product (aggregate comparable to our gross domestic product) of order of 50% between 1991 and 1994 (with a downward stroke especially in 1992); a decline in industrial production of almost the same extent over the same period. At the same time, very strong inflation occurred, which devalued the purchasing power of the ruble by about 300 times between 1990 and early 1993, mainly due to the large public deficit and the carefree use of currency issuance and easy-to-credit credit. part of the Central Bank; this financial crisis continued in 1994 with a sharp surge in October. There is also the unprecedented phenomenon of the flight of Russian capital abroad. The only reassuring fact is that relating to the unemployment rate, which would not have exceeded 2% (1992).

Against the backdrop of this economic situation, a process of economic reforms developed in the early 1990s clearly aimed at transforming the planned and command economy into a market economy, but equally clearly uncertain and contradictory as to methods, times and methods. limits of this transformation. The process began in the years 1989-90, therefore still in the Soviet age, but the “ long march towards the market ”, as it is officially defined, developed above all from 1991 onwards, between strokes of the accelerator (e.g. liberalization of trade, which has greatly reduced the traditional shortage of goods in shops, and opening up to foreign capital) and slowdowns, particularly frequent after the elections at the end of 1993 (freezing of some prices, subsidies and credits to state-owned enterprises). The privatization of small enterprises, especially commercial ones, does not encounter particular obstacles, while that of large enterprises, substantially transformed into joint stock companies (1992-93), is slowly being achieved through traditional systems, of a corporate nature (facilitated sale to cooperatives of managers and employees), but also with courageously innovative methods (free distribution to all citizens of vouchers – worth 10,000 rubles 1992 per person – that can be used for the purchase of shares). There was no lack of deep distrust on the part of citizens; and strong resistance, especially in the broad environment of managers and officials of the public economy, particularly robust in the sector of collective and state agricultural enterprises; despite this, by mid-1993 there were already 200,000 farms and 60. 000 companies (commercial, artisanal and industrial) passed from the public sector to that of cooperatives and private individuals. The employment figures confirm this: public sector employees, who were 91% of the total in 1985, represented 68% of the workforce employed in 1992.

On a more strictly territorial level, the new Russian economy seems to develop in a promising way especially where free economic zones have been established, such as in St. Petersburg, a city close to the West in many senses (another could arise in Kaliningrad also on the Baltic) and on the island of Sahalin, which benefits from the proximity of Japan. Western countries, individually (especially Germany) or through international economic organizations, have in effect openly encouraged the process of transformation of the Russian economy, stimulating it with financial aid conditional on the implementation of reforms; the appropriateness and effectiveness of such aids are also under discussion.

New Russian Economy

Greece Literature

Greece Literature

During the Eighties, the training of those writers initially grouped under the term ” post-war generation ” was completed; writers thus identified according to a biographical criterion that highlights the experiences of the resistance and above all of the civil war (1946-49). The traumas caused by the latter and the consequent contrasts between a culture inspired by Soviet Marxism and a culture that relied on pro-American nationalism guide thematic choices on a creative level, while on a critical level they hinder the application of unitary and persuasive criteria.

The writers of the 1950s struggled to gain their own space in publishing and printing, firmly controlled by the writers of the 1930s, and encountered considerable difficulty in winning recognition; but they themselves were unconvincing in giving a critical interpretation of their aspirations. Inaccurate labels such as ” poetry of the resistance ”, or ” of post-surrealism ”, with relative pigeonholing, which accompanied the activity of these writers for a couple of decades, could not promote any clarification regarding their programs. and their works.

Poetry.- Without underestimating intermediate positions, by age and by assumptions, of poets such as Greece Thémelis (1900-1976), Greece Gheralís (b.1917), A. Diktéos (1919-1980), T. Varvitsiotis (b.1916), K. Athanassùlis (1916-1979), A. Dekavales (b.1920), the tendencies that most clearly differ from past experiences are those of M. Sachturis, T. Sinòpulos, D. Papadhitsas, M. Anagnostakis, N. Karusos, T. Patrikios. Nonetheless, it is necessary to specify that even these younger poets, compared to those mentioned above, have not had the opportunity to implement sensational innovations, not because of their intrinsic inability, but because the previous generation, to which they are inevitably opposed, had made its own, living them in first person, the great changes of the century: the use of free verse, the weakening of logical connections, free association in image formation, surrealistic practices. The most persuasive results were obtained by poets who channeled their emotionality into the monological discourse, favoring dramatic movements and reducing the use of figures.

Sinòpulos (1917-1981) already in Μεταίχμιο (“Between two fronts”, 1951) shows to put aside the lyrical genre and to focus on the dramatic; M. Sachturis (b. 1919) reassembles familiar objects in such a way as to bring out their monstrosity; D. Papadhitsas (1922-1987) reaches abstract insights through everyday experiences; M. Anagnostakis (b. 1925) takes on a provocatively prosaic tone to challenge ” well-being ” and the politics of compromises; T. Patrikios (b. 1928), a militant poet in communism, followed a more varied research, without losing sight of the intentions of art. A case in itself constitutes N. Karusos (1926-1990) for the reference to the Christian faith.

Storytelling.- Equally numerous are the narrators of marked individuality. Some of them were initially inspired by the theme of the civil war. It is noteworthy that these writers, rather than pouring their burning experiences into a book of testimony, built novels based on a narrative character that allowed games of a more complex and captivating psychological perspective. In this sense, A. Kotziàs (b. 1926), N. Kàsdaglis (b. 1927), A. Franghiàs (b. 1921) are cited. Evidence of advanced technical writing has also been provided by less assiduous novelists, such as K. Tachtsìs (1927-1988), author of Τὸ τϱίτο στεϕάνι (“The third wedding”, 1962) or like A. Alexandru (1922-1978), author of the political fictional novel Τὸ ϰιβώτιο (“La cassa”, 1975). L’ insistence on civil issues rewarded R. Rufos (1924-1972), who gave his best in the historical novel Γϱαιϰύλοι (“Greculi”, 1967). On the international level, the best known narrator still remains V. Vassilikòs (b.1933), some works of which have also been translated into Italian (see App. IV, iii, p. 797). Also worth mentioning are: M. Kumantarèas (b.1933), Greece Ioannu (1927-1984), Th. Valtinòs (b.1932), D. Chatzìs (1913-1981), narrators who in various ways have delivered novels and tales of classic precision.

Numerous new writers appeared in the 1970s. In common with the precedents they have the bitter experience of the military dictatorship (1967-74). The impossibility of taking an active part in the youth movements of 1968 does not prevent them from assuming attitudes of protest. Poets reject paternalism, institutions, denounce consumerism. However, the improved conditions of life assure young people a more accurate culture, a more secure mastery of the means of expression. Some authors correspond to as many distinct cases in the research of poetry: L. Pùlios (b.1944), V. Steriadis (b.1947), Greece Kontòs (b.1943), M. Pratikakis (b.1943), D Kalokiris (b. 1948), who supports his peers also through magazines and series, S. Bekatoros (b. 1946), T. Mastoraki (b. 1949), A. Fostieris (b. 1953).

The narrative proposes a broader theme, with a preference for the monological discourse of an invented character, as in the works of F. Drakondaidìs and Greece Ghiatromanolakis (born 1940) as well as the resourceful writer M. Duka (b. 1947). There is no shortage of narrators who trust in autobiographical evocation in a simple and vibrant style, such as T. Kazantzìs, S. Papadimitrìu and D. Nolas.

The young people who made their debut in the eighties continue and deepen the themes and methods already established in the seventies, without attempting new literary experiences. This understanding, already clear in the programmatic anthology Γϱαϕή 1980-85 (“Scripture 1980-85”, 1986), is confirmed by poets such as Greece Varveris (b. 1955), Greece Kakulidis (b. 1956), K. Ghimosulis (b. 1960), and by narrators such as V. Raptòpulos (b. 1959), A. Sfakianakis (b. 1958), D. Tatsòpulos (b. 1959).

Greece Literature

Federal Republic of Germany Financial Organization

Federal Republic of Germany Financial Organization

The past decade has seen substantial changes in German financial structures. Immediately after the 1948 monetary reform (see below: History) various special bodies (in part already operating under the Third Reich) were established, with the allied consent, which the state then used to provide financial assistance to the steel and coal industries, construction activities, shipbuilding, agriculture, etc. In November 1948, the Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau was created, with capital from American aid and funds granted by the central bank, in order to grant medium and long-term loans to economic enterprises in general. At the beginning of 1949 a similar institution was created: the Industriekreditbank, with activity limited only to industrial companies. In the following year two other institutions began to operate: the Landwirtschaftliche Rentenbank for credit to agricultural activities and related industries; the Deutsche Genossenschaftskasse for the Cooperation Credit. In the first months of 1952, the financing of exports was entrusted to a new entity: Ausfuhrkredit AG, operating with funds drawn mainly from the central bank.

Through the Allied Banking Commission, the occupation authorities retained some supervisory and regulatory power over Bank Deutscher Länder until the spring of 1952, by which time the Commission was dissolved. With 1 August 1957, the central banking system, which included the Bank Deutscher Länder and the central banks of the nine federal districts (Länder) plus that of Berlin, was centralized in a single institution: the Deutsche Bundesbank. The original capital of the Deutsche Bundesbank was fixed at DM 290 million and transferred into ownership to the federal government. The independence of the Bundesbank from state directives is expressly established in art. 12 of the institutive law. However, it is obliged to “support the general economic policy of the government”,

On a functional level, the new provisions have legally sanctioned and clarified without the possibility of further evasion the practice previously followed by public authorities to deposit their cash reserves with the central bank, leaving, however, the latter the faculty to allow the funds to otherwise they are invested rather than deposited. Furthermore, the financial relations with the state and public administrations have been regulated by establishing the total amount of credits that the Bundesbank can allow them. Finally, the operational possibilities of the new central institution have been widened in correspondence with an expansion of the financial maneuver that it can carry out: through the purchase and sale of all kinds of public securities (short and long-term,

With the centralization of the central bank, the central banks that previously operated in the various Länder have ceased to have a separate legal personality and are now the headquarters of the new central body. However, they have partly retained their autonomy (for certain transactions with public bodies and banks in their respective regions) and have their own board of directors (Vorstände). At the center, monetary and credit policy directives are entrusted to the Zentralbankrat (made up of the various head office directors and members of the central administration), while their execution is reserved to the Direktorium, without prejudice to the competences of the regional councils.

Currently, the German banking system includes over 13,000 units of all kinds, including commercial banks (351), savings banks (857), building credit institutions (47), agricultural credit (10,784), industrial credit (757). In the credit sector, the three large commercial banks (Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank and Commerzbank) occupy a prominent position, which together have a volume of outstanding loans greater than half of the total. Immediately after the war, the aforementioned banks were split into 30 distinct institutions. In 1952 these were again grouped into nine units. The integration process was carried out in 1958 through the concentration in Commerzbank of the banking institutions that were originally part of the group,

On the occasion of the general devaluation of the currencies, which took place in September 1949 following the adjustment of the sterling exchange rate, the German mark was also devalued, moreover to a lesser extent than that of the majority of the other countries (by 20.6%, compared to 30, 5). From then on, the official parity of the mark remained unchanged at DM 4.20 to one US dollar. Since December 1958 the exchange has been free to float within the limits of 0.75% around the parity level. After the declaration of convertibility by various OEEC countries in December 1958, Germany almost completely abolished the currency restrictions in force. On January 12, 1959, the German mark, like the US dollar, the Canadian dollar and the Swiss franc, was declared fully convertible.

German Democratic Republic. – In October 1951 the Deutsche Notenbank, created in July 1948, was declared the State Bank of the German Democratic Republic. Its powers “to actively support economic planning with the means of monetary and credit policy” are particularly extensive. The Deutsche Notenbank has (since January 1952) the functions of general organ of control of the entire economic process (of production, of the movement of business and of the observance of economic plans). It also collects and pays the turnover of all nationalized companies. In the context of the economic plans established by the special planning commission, it represents, alongside the Deutsche Bauerbank and the savings banks.

Federal Republic of Germany Financial Organization

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 8

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 8

According to, the limits of the respective conquests in eastern and southern Spain were fixed by the agreements of Cazola (Cazorla?) And Almizra concluded between Aragon and Castile respectively in 1179 and 1244, for which Murcia and its kingdom were closed to the Aragonese conquest., and therefore also the surviving Muslim monarchy of Grenada. Navarre was the sacrificed; García Ramírez managed to preserve the integrity of the state from the pressure of the neighboring sovereigns; but during the reign of Sancho VII the agreement of Cazola, establishing the Sierra del Moncayo as the borders of Castile and Aragon, closed forever the southern route to Navarre, which could save only Tudela from the hands of Aragon; and in vain Sancho VII moved to the rescue by allying himself with the Muslims, whose help he had asked for by going personally to Morocco: then the domain of Alfonso VIII of Castile and León became Alava (1200), while Guipúzcoa and Vizcaya had long since entered the Castilian sphere of influence. Indeed, Navarre did not lose its independence because in the last years of his life Sancho VII made an agreement with James I of Aragon, by which the two sovereigns mutually committed themselves to recognize each other as heirs of the state. of the other. And if, on the other hand, upon the death of the sovereign, Theobald son of Theobald of Champagne and White sister of the deceased ascended the throne, Navarre withdrew from the political life of Spain and entrusted the protection of its freedom to the discords that separated Aragon and Castile, always in dispute for its possession, and for the protection of the French monarchy, interested in preventing a powerful state from appearing on that dangerous stretch of its border: the end of the disagreements between the two major peninsular states and their even temporary triumph over the French monarchy will coincide with the decline of the independence of its Spanish part.

Finally, as regards the relations between Catalonia united with Aragon and southern France, the period of the greatest Catalan-Aragonese expansion beyond the Pyrenees coincided with the reign of Peter II. Ramón Berenguer IV had already intervened in the affairs of Provence during his nephew’s minor age the end of the disagreements between the two major peninsular states and their even temporary triumph over the French monarchy will coincide with the decline of the independence of its Spanish part. Finally, as regards the relations between Catalonia united with Aragon and southern France, the period of the greatest Catalan-Aragonese expansion beyond the Pyrenees coincided with the reign of Peter II. Ramón Berenguer IV had already intervened in the affairs of Provence during his nephew’s minor age the end of the disagreements between the two major peninsular states and their even temporary triumph over the French monarchy will coincide with the decline of the independence of its Spanish part. Finally, as regards the relations between Catalonia united with Aragon and southern France, the period of the greatest Catalan-Aragonese expansion beyond the Pyrenees coincided with the reign of Peter II. Ramón Berenguer IV had already intervened in the affairs of Provence during his nephew’s minor ageex fratreRamón Berenguer III, who had had that county from his father; renewing the traditional conflict of his family and with the help of various feudatars of southern France and Henry II of England (1159), he had defended him from the attacks of the Count of Toulouse and his allies De Baux, and had succeeded in making him have the investiture of the county by Federico Barbarossa together with that of Arles and Forcalquier. Then, his son Alfonso II had inherited Provence from his cousin, who died at the siege of Nice; supported by the King of England, he had once again repelled the assaults of the Count of Toulouse; and his vassals had become the lords of Bearn (1170), of Bigorra (1175), of Nîmes, of Béziers, of Carcassonne (1179). With Peter II further steps were taken: by marrying Mary of Montpellier he secured the inheritance of his dominions; he was always next to his brother Alfonso who had had Provence from his father; he obtained the friendship of the count of Comminges and ceded the Aran valley to him as a fief (1201); even the Count of Toulouse Raymond VI became his ally and brother-in-law, so that it seemed close to implementing the political unity of the country under the scepter of the Aragonese. But instead the king was overwhelmed by the crusade against the Albigensians; and, after having tried in vain a lasting agreement with Simon of Montfort, he was beaten and killed at Muret on 12 September 1213. His defeat marked the end of the Catalan-Aragonese dominance in southern France, to the benefit of the French monarchy; and the liquidation of the previous imperialism of his state was provided by James I of Aragon, who with the treaty of Corbeil in 1258 ceded all his rights in the region to Louis IX, except Montpellier which he had from his mother. But, in exchange, from the Capetian he had the renunciation of all the rights that he could have boasted over the Catalan counties as the successor of Charlemagne, and then, in confirmation of the treaty, a few years later, he obtained that the French crown prince Philip marry his daughter Isabella. In this way, after centuries of disputes involving the regions of uncertain dominion located on both sides of the Pyrenees, Catalonia began to clearly separate from France. And in this regard it should be added that, not even Alfonso VIII having managed to occupy the Duchy of Gascony, dowry of his wife Leonor Plantageneta (1204-06), the Pyrenean chain also became the border of Castile.

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 8

Mexico in the 1930’s Part 2

Mexico in the 1930’s Part 2

The administration of this industry was entrusted to the Confederation of Mexican workers, which celebrated the presidential decision with a day of national jubilation. Moreover, the valorisation of workers ‘trade unions and their insertion into national life corresponds to Cárdenas’ program, as is one of the essential aspects of his policy that of aiming for the approval and favor of vast social circles, rather than isolated politicians.. In fact, he aimed to conquer the agricultural masses, with the application of the law on agrarian reform, those workers, with particular legislative provisions and with the laws of nationalization, and the army with an improvement in wages and salaries and with a radicalization of the military system.

In the popular education sector, the Cárdenas government continued the fight against illiteracy, which still stood at 59 percent in 1930. To this end, he increased the budget of the Ministry of Education and stimulated the construction of new schools (10,000 in 1935, 11,000 in 1936, 13,600 in 1937).

With regard to religious politics and the conflict between Church and State, the Cárdenas has, in a certain sense, attenuated the intransigent lines of Calles’ secular politics, or at least has attenuated the demagogic character of the same, since it is now believed that the Calles he used the anti-religious struggle to satisfy the revolutionary instincts of the masses and distract their attention from the socio-economic problems which he preferred to leave unsolved. That this more elastic tendency of the Cárdenas corresponds to the reality of things is also confirmed in a certain sense by the apostolic letter to the Mexican Church of Pius XI of March 28, 1937 which, while condemning the policy of the Mexican government, gave a glimpse of certain possibilities of conciliation.. In domestic politics, in May 1938 Cárdenas vigorously acted against the gen. Cedillo who had rebelled in the state of San Luis Potosí.

In the field of international relations, Mexico’s position in recent years has been marked by the policy of “good neighborliness” with the United States of America (which absorb most of Mexican exports) and by manifestations of societalism and pro-Sovietism in the relations with other states (in particular in the Ethiopian and Spanish questions). The hoped-for “Mexicanization” of the economy, which backfires completely against the foreign capital employed there and, in particular, the mentioned nationalization of oil resources, have aroused the protests of the most affected states, Great Britain and the United States, and have highlighted the reasons for a disagreement that will not be so easy to settle, because the governments concerned appear determined to carry out the work of defending the interests of their citizens to the end. The “good neighborly” policy with the United States has been compromised to a certain extent; as for England, the situation has worsened considerably due to the breakdown of diplomatic relations between the two countries, which took place on the initiative of Mexico which on May 14 recalled its representative in London (the British government replied, on the 26th, with the reminder of his representative in Mexico). It will be necessary to see if a compromise and understanding formula will still be possible, bearing in mind the strategic convenience for England of supplying Mexican oil.

All this work of structural reforms of the economy, the agitated social struggles and the extremist orientation of domestic and foreign politics seem to have served to tighten more completely around the idea of ​​the reconquest the Mexican people, but they have still had little success in stimulating agricultural and industrial production. Undoubtedly, the agrarian reform constitutes a very complex provision whose developments it is not yet possible to discern, as it is still being implemented. It has upset the lines of the Mexican economy and has wreaked havoc in agricultural production. The other social changes have also had a disturbing result, so that the only real finding that can be made is that Mexican productive capacity has improved very slightly. The population, on the other hand, according to official estimates which cannot be very precise due to the backwardness of the statistical services, would have increased by 2 between 1931 (date of the last census) and June 1936. 321,000 units, that is, the increase of this five-year period would have been greater than that of the decade 1921-31. It should also be borne in mind that Mexico is pursuing a policy of pronounced self-sufficiency, so that the found deficient improvement of certain branches of production finds its compensation in the improvement of new ones. During the recovery phase of the world economy, between 1934 and 1937, Mexico was favored by the high prices of certain raw materials, especially metals, which compensated for the deficiencies in production. The trade balance therefore showed a satisfactory upward trend as can be seen from the following data (in millions of pesos):

Finance. – We give below the figures, in millions of pesos, of the balance sheets since 1932.

As of December 31, 1936, the external debt amounted to 892 million and the internal debt to 434 million.

In July 1933 the peso was pegged to the dollar at the rate of 3.55 pesos per 1 dollar; at the beginning of 1938, however, the exchange rate was 4.28 pesos per 1 dollar. In connection with North American politics, the demonetization of silver was decreed on April 25, 1935. An important monetary-banking reform was then implemented on August 28, 1936 with two decrees that each conferred unlimited liberating power to the new notes of the Bank of Mexico (which became the sole issuing bank) and to the monetary certificates of the value of 5 US dollars, representing coins and silver bars, and to fix the maximum emission (no more than 50 pesos per capita in view tickets and commitments) and the minimum legal reserve (25% of which 4 /5 in gold and currencies and 1/5 in silver), the other to specify the central bank figure of the Bank of Mexico (which had ceased all private banking activities since 1932) and to regulate credit. On 1 September 1936 the silver coins were put back into circulation.

As of November 30, 1937, notes in circulation amounted to 288 million and as of August 31, the gold reserve was 51 million.

Navy. – New units: Gunboats: 2 (DurangoZacatecas) built in 1934-35 in Spain, of 1600 t. and 19 knots, armed with 2/102 and various anti-aircraft weapons, capable of carrying 500 men and 80 quadrupeds; 3 (PotosíQuerétaroGuanajuato) built in 1934-35 in Spain, from 1300 t. and 19 knots. armed with 3/102 and various anti-aircraft weapons, capable of carrying 250 men and 20 quadrupeds.

Coast Guard Cutter: 10 (G. 20- G. 29) built in 1934-36 in Spain, of 160 t. and 26 knots, armed with 2/25 anti-aircraft and 4 machine gunners.

Merchant Navy. The merchant navy was constituted as of June 30, 1937 by 54 ships per ton. 41,371, mainly steam. Cabotage is reserved for the flag, but has been opened, on a temporary basis, by foreign shipping due to the shortage of domestic ships.

Mexico in the 1930's 2

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 7

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 7

According to, Alfonso IX of León reconquered Cáceres (1227) and took possession of Mérida and Badajoz; and at the same time Ferdinand III of Castile occupied Andújar and other places near Cordoba. And when this latter sovereign also had the crown of León, with united forces, in agreement with James I of Aragon and with the help of the religious orders of Calatrava and Alcántara, he conquered Truijllo, Montiel, Medellín, Alhange, Magacela (1232-35), in July 1233 he took Ubeda, on June 29 1236 he capitulated Cordova, in 1241 he made the king of Murcia his vassal and occupied almost the whole state; in 1244-45 he went as far as Granada and the following year he obtained from his king Jaén, a tribute and promises, kept, aid in its further ventures; in 1247 he conquered Carmona; on 23 November 1248 he forced Seville to open its doors to him, and spent the last years of his life in Andalusia, where he took Jerex, Medina Sidonia, Lebrija, Arcos, Rota, Santa María del Puerto, Sanlúcar, going as far as Cadiz. At the same time, James I of Aragon in September 1229 landed on the island of Majorca and on the last day of the year he entered Palma; in 1232 he made the Muslims of Menorca tributary; in 1235 he obtained Iviza, while other successes brought him back to the kingdom of Valenza, where he and his followers occupied Ares, Morella (1232), Burriana, Peñiscola (1233), Alzamora (1234) and reached the Júcar; then, giving himself all to the conquest of this kingdom, he forced his capital to surrender on 28 September 1238 and completed its occupation in 1245, when seized Játiva, Alcira, Biar; finally, he granted his help to Alfonso X, son of Ferdinand III, when the kingdom of Murcia rose up against Castile, of which he was a tributary, and for his ally he conquered Elche, Alicante, Murcia (1266).

Finally, in the same epoch the various Christian states decided or saw their future decided, perfecting in this respect the work of reorganization already begun in previous years. And, moreover, the particular development that each of the states gave to the reconquest and that we have indicated, must be considered precisely as one of the expressions and consequences of the direction gradually assumed by their life; the others were the division among the various monarchies of the territories previously restored to Christianity, the definitive territorial delimitation of Spain, which had its border in the Pyrenees, and, for some states, the determination of the direction that their expansion beyond of the seas. In the complex process of clarification, with respect to the previous arrangement, negative elements were the separation of Navarre from Aragon, the confirmed independence of Portugal and, temporarily, the division between the kingdom of León and the kingdom of Castile; on the other hand, a positive element was the union between Aragon and the Catalan states, which put an end to their peninsular disputes, allowed them to gather all their energies in an attempt to strengthen their expansion in southern France, to which previously they had targeted each one on its own; with Aragon it gave security, strength, markets for its trade to Catalonia all reaching out towards the Mediterranean, and with Catalonia it ensured an outlet on the Mediterranean to Aragon, removed from the ocean due to its separation from Navarre: so that when the French monarchy pushed back the Catalans and the Aragonese beyond the Pyrenees, they were able to give another direction to their activity and regain with usury what they had lost. During the government of Alfonso VII of León and Castile the direction of the peninsular political life of the Spanish Catholic states was centered in the hands of that king, to the benefit of his monarchy. Renewing the policy of his grandfather Alfonso VI with more success, on the death of Alfonso I of Aragon he occupied Tarazona, Daroca, Calatayud, Zaragoza (1134); and if he then returned this city to Ramiro II (1136) for the intervention of the counts of Urgel and Barcelona interested in preventing Zaragoza from becoming Castilian to free himself the way to Lérida and the Ebro, nevertheless he obtained that Ramón Berenguer IV pay homage; moreover, together with the king of France, the attempts made by the new prince of Aragon to force the monarch of Navarre to return some frontier territories that had been attributed to himself in the separation were in vain; forced Affonso Henriques of Portugal to come to terms, and he saw recognized by all the princes his superiority as emperor of Spain “. But at his death the dispute resumed with great fury and with a rich variety of alliances and wars between the various states, made even more intricate by the continuous conflict between Castile and León. Through long struggles with León, Portugal came to fix its northern border; and, if on the eastern border it could not secure the dominion of Badajoz, more south in 1263 confirmed the possession of the Algarve.

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 7

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 6

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 6

Then the situation cleared up completely between the second half of the twelfth century and the first of the thirteenth. Undoubtedly, in this period there was a new territorial division. On the death of Alfonso I of Aragon (1134), Navarre did not want Ramiro II as sovereign and, having returned independent, it gave itself to García Ramírez (1134-50) nephew of Sancho IV, who was succeeded by his son Sancho VI and Sabio (1150-94) and his nephew ex filio Sancho VII el Fuerte(1194-1234). Alfonso VII of Castile and León in 1157 left his dominions divided between his sons, giving Castile to Sancho III (1157-58), who was succeeded by Alfonso VIII (1158-1214), Henry I (1214-17) and his sister Berenguela, second wife of Alfonso IX of Leon, and Leon to Ferdinand II (1157-88) who was succeeded by Alfonso IX (1188-1230). Finally, taking advantage of the civil struggles that broke out at the time of Urraca and in which he had a notable part, the county of Portugal, located between the Miño and the Duero, which Alfonso VI of León and Castile had already made great strides towards independence. given to his daughter Teresa, married to Henry of Lorraine, and whom their son Affonso Henriques (1128-85) had transformed into a kingdom after winning the Muslims at Ourique (1139); now with Sancho I (1185-1211) and with Alfonso II (1211-1223) the state independence had its definitive confirmation. However, an event of great importance in the history of Spain, with the marriage between Petronila of Aragon and Ramón Berenguer IV of Barcelona in 1137 (date of the marriage promise and abdication of Ramiro II) the Catalan-Aragonese monarchy actually originated; to which, later, during the reigns of Alfonso II (1162-96), Pedro II (1196-1213) and James Iel Conquistador (1213-76), the counties of Roussillon (1172), of Pallás (1198), of Urgel (1230) passed. And then the two crowns of León and Castile joined again, and forever, on the head of Ferdinand III el Santo (1217-52), son of Berenguela of Castile and Alfonso IX of León. Who became king of Castile in 1217 for the abdication of his mother in his favor and after having won the opposition of his father, still aspiring to the throne and in his attempts to conquer aided by a part of the nobility, which was definitively won in 1219; and in 1230, on the death of Alfonso IX, he also received the crown of León, through the renunciation of the heirs designated by the monarch.

According to, as for the war of reconquest, in the early days the Christian advance towards the South was made slower by the offensive of the Almohads and then by the wars that broke out between the various Catholic states and within some of them, and in which they took part. even the Africans. In fact, even the great feat of Almeria carried out by Alfonso VII with the help of troops from Aragon, Catalonia, Urgel, commanded by Ramón Berenguer IV, García Ramírez and the Count of Urgel Ermengol VI el de did not have lasting results. Castella, and with the help of Pisan and Genoese ships: the city was conquered and sacked (1147), but after a few years it fell into the power of the Almohads (1158). Thus, the great conquests made by Portugal during the reign of Affonso Henriques, who had taken possession of Santarem, of Lisbon (1147), of Alcácer (1158), of Évora, of Beja (1159) and had crushed the power of the Muslims of Badajoz, were mostly lost during the government of Sancho I. Alfonso VII of León and Castile had to limit himself to making continuous incursions into Andalusia, very daring, but almost completely ineffective: Cordova, which he occupied twice, returned to the domain of the Almohads; against the latter useless were his agreements with some kingdoms of Taifas; and in vain he besieged Jaén (1151) and Guadix (1152). During the short reign of Sancho III of Castile there was only the opposition in Calatrava to the Muslim attacks by some Cistercian monks, thus starting the military order of Calatrava. And when Alfonso VIII of Castile, having come of age, was able to take over the government of the state and put an end to the civil wars that broke out in the kingdom during his minority, if he managed to conquer Cuenca with the Aragonese rescue (1177), moreover, left to himself by Alfonso IX of León and by Sancho VI of Navarre who had promised him help, and launched an attack too lightly, he was beaten at Alarcos (18 June 1195) and saw Toledo and Cuenca besieged by the Almohads. The reconquest made notable progress only in the eastern regions. Here he conquered Tortosa (1148); then yes he took possession of Lérida (1149), of Fraga, of Mequinenza again, finally of the castle of Ciurana (1153), whose conquest ensured him the dominion of the Sierra de Prades and freed all future Catalonia from Muslim domination. And his son Alfonso II moved against the kingdom of Valencia: he besieged the capital (1171), conquered Rueda, took Teruel, which became the bulwark of Christian resistance against the Muslims of Valencia, reached Guadalaviar and Alfambra, gave to the future Aragon its borders. However, in the first decade of the century. XII to Don Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada, archbishop of Toledo, was able to put Christian principles in agreement; the crusade was banned; and on July 16, 1212 at Las Navas de Tolosa the Almohads were defeated by the Spanish and Portuguese troops commanded by their kings – those of León and Portugal were missing – and aided by foreign contingents who had intervened under the orders of French bishops and princes. Then the war of reconquest was resumed with renewed enthusiasm; and since the state of the Almohads had split up and could profit from the internal strife of the kingdoms that had arisen on its ruins, and furthermore in 1230 the two kingdoms of León and Castile were again subjected to a single ruler, and Navarre he moved away from Spanish political life and generally the wars between the other three peninsular states stopped, the results obtained were of enormous importance. Sancho II of Portugal (1223-48) took up what was lost and pushed forward; and his successor Alfonso III (1248-78) occupied the Algarve and gave the ocean as the southern border to his own monarchy.

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 6

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 5

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 5

According to, they were the first great Christian conquests. And the passions of Spanish Catholics – in whose formation religious propaganda had hybridly collaborated, the continuous wars, the eagerness to achieve a well-being that their poor homeland denied them, the spirit of adventure, especially, which had induced them and induced them to fight even among the ranks of the Mohammedans – they were exalted by the richness of the booty, by the spectacle of the marvelous fruits of the Andalusian civilization, which in the raids appeared to the astonished eyes of the conquerors and warmed their hopes and increased their desiresî, by brilliant successes that gave them clear awareness of their value and destroyed the myth of Arab military superiority. At that time, in fact, Catholic Spain had its own champion in Rodrigo Díazel Cid, soldier of Alfonso VI of Castile, then defender of the ruler of Zaragoza and his ally of Valenza, finally the real lord of this city. He, a mixture of ferocious and unscrupulous adventurer and magnificent leader, while fighting for his personal interests, did much in favor of Christianity, with his extraordinary deeds he brightly proved that the Spaniards were capable of winning victory over the Arabs and ruling them, yes that “for the firmness of his character and for his heroic valor” even by the Arabs, who were terrified of him, he was called “one of the greatest miracles of the Lord”; he obtained the recognition of his work from the Christian monarchs, who were related to him and placed him on their own level.

But in recent years, through the same complex of struggles which, as we have seen, intertwine with the conquest campaigns, contribute to the formation of new states, they give the life of Spain a marked unity of direction and political methods and therefore the its peculiar character, the various Christian states – which arose from the earlier more minute fragmentation of the Catholic country and animated by the same passions of their subjects – set out to give themselves a reason for living, to fix their own future, to suffer what was imposed on them. The struggle burned between Castile, Navarre, Aragon; and then, when Navarre and Aragon had a single sovereign, the Aragonese monarch persevered in the fight against Castile with united forces, finally, the counts of Barcelona, ​​Urgel and Pallás also took part in the conflicts.el Mayor(because Fernando I had conquered his brother and occupied part of his kingdom, to then fall back before the coalition of Sancho IV with Ramiro I), and some of them in fact autonomous; on the contrary, it is to be believed that Navarre at the death of Sancho IV also gave itself to the Aragonese to receive help against Alfonso VI, who had taken possession of the Rioja. And it was a question of sharing the possession of the great roads of the South, towards which the Christian states were now anxiously pointing, which amounted to determining the respective areas of influence in the Muslim territories and to fix in advance the future borders of the various monarchies – to avoid d ‘ being cut off in the reconquest of the country and thus losing the possibility of further expansion. Indeed, Alfonso VI of León and Castile already besieged Zaragoza, when he had to interrupt the operations for the invasion of the Almoravids, and then tried to oppose the Aragonese advance by supporting the Muslims of Huesca in their resistance against Peter I. Instead Zaragoza fell into the hands of Alfonso I, when Castile, during the government of Urraca, was drawn into civil strife; and indeed the Aragonese in the last years of his life with the possession of Mequinenza advanced towards the banks of the Segre and the lower course of the Ebro. However, if, as in the past, Alfonso I saw the counts of Urgel and Pallás leaning towards his monarchy, on the road to Lérida, a very important road junction, he found himself up against Ramón Berenguer III. Thus, the interests of the major monarchies were clearly clarified in the first half of the century. XII blatantly failed the dream of Alfonso VI who, giving his daughter Urraca in marriage to Alfonso I, he had thought of uniting the three royal crowns of Christian Spain, and the separation between the respective states became deeper: after years of chaotic conflicts, in which all ties and anarchy took over in a confused jumble of revolts and wars, Alfonso I gave up the fight in disgust; and, conversely, on his death, during the reign of his brother Ramiro IIel Monje(1134-37), the Aragonese nobility opposed a marriage between his daughter and heir Petronila with the eldest son of the king of León and Castile. Moreover, in the same years, taking advantage of the conditions of southern France, a profound work of political expansion in the lands beyond the Pyrenees began Alfonso I and the counts of Barcelona: which was, at least, a clear demonstration of the independence of that part. of Spain from the Capetian monarchy, heir to the rights of the Carolingian, which had already dominated it. The first in 1116 welcomed the count of Toulouse as a vassal, in 1122 he went to Gascony to receive the vassalage of the count of Bigorra and to help him, and in 1130 he sided in favor of Gastone de Bearne and besieged and conquered Bajona, so that the Gaul already gota submitted to his dominion; seconds, Ramón Berenguer I for his marriages with princesses of the South of France ended up being engaged in the local feudal struggles, and Ramón Berenguer III, marrying Dolce di Provence in third marriage, acquired the right to succeed her in this county, which he occupied in part after a few years of struggle with the count of Toulouse (1125) and which he then left to his son Berenguer Ramón, while the eldest son Ramón Berenguer IV became count of Barcelona. Finally Ramón Berenguer III himself began to turn his attention to the sea; it was in relations with the Italian maritime republics; he participated in a crusade promoted by Pisa (1114) against the Balearics, and, if this latter undertaking was of little immediate use, since it was only possible to reduce piracy, it was nevertheless the first manifestation of the nascent maritime power of the Catalan state:Liber maiolichinus.

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 5