Category: Asia

Tibet, China: Shopping, Nightlife, Culinary and Accommodation

Tibet, China: Shopping, Nightlife, Culinary and Accommodation



Tibet offers unique souvenirs. Pilgrim accessories such as prayer flags, portable prayer wheels and brass butter lamps are found in most monasteries and pilgrimage sites and are the most typical travel souvenirs. Arts and crafts from Tibet include hand-painted thangkas (religious images) and metal-cast Buddha statues and figures of the tutelary gods. Handwoven carpets are making a comeback in Lhasa and Shigatse. In addition, chuba (coats lined with sheepskin), the cowboy hats of the nomads and the chic dresses of the Tibetan women are also suitable as souvenirs. Caution should be exercised when buying turquoise jewelry, as it is usually fake. The best choice is in Lhasa, especially on the Barkhor, where prices should be bargained down, and Lhasa Village. Chinese trekking articles, some genuine and some fake, with a wide range to rival that of Kathmandu, are also available for purchase. A certificate is required to export antiques made before 1949. Under no circumstances should you buy skins and skins from endangered species such as leopards. are also available for purchase. A certificate is required to export antiques made before 1949. Under no circumstances should you buy skins and skins from endangered species such as leopards. are also available for purchase. A certificate is required to export antiques made before 1949. Under no circumstances should you buy skins and skins from endangered species such as leopards.

Opening hours

Daily from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m.



Lhasa is the only Tibetan city that has any kind of nightlife. Most bars are Chinese karaoke bars, but there is sometimes live blues and pop music. Backpackers’ favorite haunts are the restaurants and cafes near the old town, where you can chat about your trekking adventures until the early hours of the morning. Most interesting are the Nangma clubs with their unique mix of Tibetan karaoke, live music and line dancing. Traditional music and folk dance are usually only seen during festivals, but there are a few venues in Lhasa that offer stage shows for tourists.



The rugged mountainous landscape of Tibet has resulted in a relatively simple cuisine. The staple foods of most Tibetans are dumplings and noodles. On special occasions there is also roasted yak meat. Chinese restaurants are everywhere, offering spicy Sichuan dishes or Muslim (pork-free) Gansu dishes. Backpacker-friendly restaurants in the larger cities serve variations on Western fare, including yak burgers and yak cheesecake.

Regional specialities

Momos are steamed, sometimes fried dumplings filled with pureed vegetables and yak fish. They are typical of the Himalayan region and are eaten from Ladakh to Bhutan. Thukba is one of the many variations of noodle soup. Depending on the shape of the pasta, the thick dish is also called thanthuk or hipthuk. Bö cha (yak butter tea) is the most typical drink in Tibet. Tea leaves, boiling water, yak butter, salt and baking soda are mixed in a long wooden vessel to create a greasy, broth-like drink notorious among foreigners. It’s perfect for replenishing salt loss and preventing chapped lips. Tsampa (roasted, ground barley) is a staple food in rural areas of Tibet. It is often mixed with butter tea to make a nutritious porridge. Mixed with sugar and milk or yoghurt, it becomes a tasty breakfast.


Tipping is not normally expected, but 10% is appreciated in tourist restaurants.



Hotels, which are mainly found in Lhasa, range from youth hostels to chic guesthouses to luxury hotel chains such as Sheraton and St. Regis. Typically Chinese hotels are found outside of the larger cities, and in remote areas one sometimes has to make do with dormitory-style rest areas without running water or indoor toilets. In general, the hotel facilities are perfectly acceptable, if not particularly inspiring. If you are traveling off the tourist routes, you should take a sleeping bag with you.


If you want to travel to the far west or east or to popular travel destinations such as Lake Namtsho or the region around Mount Everest, you should definitely take a tent and sleeping bag with you. Be prepared for extreme weather conditions and cold, but those who are well equipped will absolutely enjoy camping by one of the clear, turquoise Tibetan lakes.

Other accommodation options

Budget accommodation Popular destinations such as Lhasa and Shigatse have hostels or budget hotels accustomed to foreign or Chinese backpackers. The youth hostels in Lhasa are particularly popular with Chinese backpackers. There are mostly dorms and private rooms to choose from, and rental bikes, internet access and washing machines are often available. Special accommodations Especially in Lhasa there are some wonderful boutique hotels, for example in historic villas or even in former monks’ residences. You may have to forgo one or two modern conveniences, but the pretty, traditional architecture and private meditation rooms or chapels easily compensate for this. Depending on the political situation, it is sometimes also possible to stay overnight in a monastery’s guest house, for example in Mindroling, Drigung Til or Dorje Drak – a simple but charming and timeless type of accommodation.



Tibet’s history has long been shaped by its powerful neighbor China. The early Tibetan Empire was one of the largest in Asia, taking even the Chinese capital of Xian in AD 763. However, the arrival of Buddhism in the eighth and ninth centuries fundamentally changed Tibet. A warrior empire has become one of the world’s most progressive centers of spirituality. The Middle Ages were defined by the relationship with China and Mongolia and the poorly defined notion of independence and tribute. This problem is as relevant today as it was in the 13th century. until the 20th In the 19th century, under the leadership of the born-again Dalai Lamas, Tibet was essentially a medieval theocracy, with wealth, education and political power in the hands of powerful and often rival monasteries. For much of the 19th and 20th centuries, Tibet isolated itself from the rest of the world; it used the Himalayas as a kind of bulwark and closed its gates to international visitors, which contributed to its exotic-mysterious image abroad. Communist China’s conquest of Tibet in 1950 broke this isolation, ushering in four decades of political turmoil and personal tragedy. The flight of the Dalai Lama in 1959 is part of the long list of accidents, the destruction of thousands of monasteries in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s and the internment of thousands of political prisoners, many of whom were monks and nuns. Since the late 1980s, many of the former religious freedoms have returned, but political tensions remain. Violent demonstrations by Tibetans drew attention in 1987, 1989 and 2008, and the Tibet issue remains problematic for China internationally. However, Tibet’s economy is growing vigorously and tourism is a good business with more than two million visitors a year, most of whom are Chinese. The communist government points to huge investments in infrastructure, airports and the disputed railway line as evidence of its determination to improve the lives of Tibetans. Frustrated Tibetans, on the other hand, complain about the mass Chinese immigration, the poor labor market situation and the interference of the Chinese state in religious matters. As the Chinese government continues to exclude the Dalai Lama from political processes, the future of Tibet remains uncertain for the time being.



Almost all locals are Tibetan Buddhists and practice Vajrayana, a form of Tantric Buddhism. A natural religion widespread among the Tibetan people is based primarily on the pre-Buddhist Bon religion, a shamanic belief system involving spirits, imprecations and exorcism.

Social Rules of Conduct

Tibetans are generally very good-natured people. One should always walk clockwise around a stupa, religious statue, or mani wall (a stone wall engraved with religious mantras). Prayer wheels are also turned clockwise. One should not smoke or speak loudly in a monastery. A sky burial should not be attended uninvited, and even if invited, you must never photograph it. A guest of honor or a visitor in Tibet is often given a kathak, a white silk scarf. One should never discuss politics with one’s guide or a monk, as one never knows who is listening. Bridges, military installations or the army are not allowed to be photographed.


Best travel time

The best time to visit Tibet is between April and October. The high season falls in July and August and the weeks after the national holidays of May 1st and October 1st.

The mid-season months of April and May are the ideal time to visit if you want to avoid large crowds of tourists. The best months for trekking trips are July, August and September. Winters are very cold and accommodation and food options are limited, but if you are well equipped, this can be a great time to travel to Tibet.

Country data

Area (sq km)



2.93 Mio.

Population density (per square km)


Population statistics year


Tibet, China

Geography of Syria

Geography of Syria

General information about Syria

The official name is the Syrian Arab Republic. Located in the southwestern part of Asia. The area is 184,050 km2, the population is 16.7 million people. (2001). The official language is Arabic. The capital is the city of Damascus (1,394,322 people, according to the 1994 census). Public holiday – Evacuation Day April 17 (since 1946). The monetary unit is the Syrian pound.

Member of the UN (since 1945), Arab League (since 1945), etc.

Geography of Syria

Syria is located between 36° and 42° east longitude and 32° and 37° north latitude. In the northwest it is washed by the Mediterranean Sea. The length of the coastline is 193 km, the coastline is slightly indented. It borders Turkey in the north, Jordan in the south, Lebanon and Israel in the west, and Iraq in the east.

The territory of the country is divided into 4 main zones: the coastal plain, the mountain range in the west, the interior plains and the Syrian desert. In the west, two mountain ranges stretch, forming the mountains of Jebel Ansaria (height up to 1562 m) along the Mediterranean coast, the mountains of Kurd, Jebel Zawiya, Anti-Lebanon (height up to 2814 m) and Jebel el-Sheikh (the Arabic name for the Hermon mountain range, greater part of which is now in Israel). In the south of Syria there is a black basalt massif Jebel Druz. The coastal lowland with evergreen vegetation is 10–20 km wide. The east of the country is a hilly steppe, semi-desert and desert with occasional oases. The northeastern part of the country is occupied by the Jazira Desert.

The bowels of the country contain reserves of oil, phosphates, chromium, manganese and iron ores, rock salt, gypsum, and marble. Modern oil reserves are estimated at about 62 billion barrels.

The soils are mainly brown desert-steppe and gray soils.

According to Bridgat, the climate on the coast is subtropical, Mediterranean, with wet mild winters (average January temperature +12°С) and dry summers with an average temperature of +26°С. It is colder in the mountains, snow falls in winter. In the interior, the climate is dry continental, it is characterized by large seasonal temperature fluctuations, for example, in winter the temperature can vary from + 10 ° C at night to + 20 ° C during the day, and in summer the maximum temperature reaches + 45-50 ° C.

The Euphrates River flows through Syria from northwest to southeast for 675 km. A gigantic dam built in 1973 with the help of the USSR makes it possible to regulate the flow and prevent floods. The state border of Syria with Turkey and Iraq runs along the Tigris River for 50 km. The El Asi River originates in the mountains of Baalbek (Lebanon), flows through the valleys near the cities of Homs and Hama, in El Ghab and El Ruja. The length of the river through the territory of Syria is 325 km. The most significant of the inland rivers of Syria is the Barada (71 km). In various parts of Syria there are small and medium-sized lakes, most of which are endorheic, salty or saline.

The flora can be conditionally divided into two zones: desert (steppe) and Mediterranean. In the eastern, desert part of the country, shrubs, semi-shrubs, thorny grasses, wormwood and forbs, consisting mainly of ephemers, predominate. On the plateaus in the eastern and southern regions, typical steppe vegetation prevails. The slopes of the mountains are covered with forests (oak, pine, cypress, laurel), occupying approx. 3% of the country’s territory. As the height increases, the forests turn into alpine meadows. Palmyra grows in the oasis of Palmyra.

The animal world is comparatively poor. There are antelopes, gazelles, onagers (wild donkeys). Rarely you can meet a wild cat, lynx, fox, jackal. But in the steppe and desert regions, rodents are in abundance – jerboas, ferrets; many reptiles – snakes, lizards, chameleons. In the Euphrates valley and in some other areas where there are open reservoirs, many migratory birds settle for the winter. There you can meet colonies of flamingos, storks, herons, gulls nest.

The population of Syria

The population of Syria, according to the 1994 census, is 13,782,315 people. Birth rate 30.11‰, death rate 5.12‰; infant mortality 32.73 pers. per 1000 newborns. Average life expectancy is 69 years, incl. men – 67.9, women – 70.3.

Age structure of the population: 0-14 years old – 39.3%, 15 – 64 years old – 57.5%, 65 years and older – 3.2%. Urban population approx. fifty%. Retirement age: 60 for men, 55 for women. Competently 70.8% of the total population, incl. men – 85.7%, women – 55.8%.

Arabs make up to 90% of the population, the remaining 10% are mainly Kurds and Armenians, as well as Turks, Circassians. Languages: Arabic, Kurdish, Armenian.

Muslims make up 90%, Christians – 10% of the population. Among Muslims, representatives of the orthodox trend in Islam, the Sunnis, predominate. Among the Muslim minorities are Shiites-Imamits and adherents of Shiite sects – Ismailis, Alawites, Druze.

Geography of Syria

Turkey Travel Guide

Turkey Travel Guide

First aid kit.
Before the trip, form and take a first aid kit with you, which will help you with minor ailments, save you time looking for medicines and get rid of the problems of communicating in a foreign language. In addition, many medicines may have different names in different countries.

We recommend taking with you:
– Painkillers and cardiovascular drugs;
– remedies for indigestion;
– choleretic;
– preparations against motion sickness in transport;
– remedies for insect bites;
– dressing material;
– waterproof adhesive plaster;
– barrier contraceptives;
– eye drops;
– Sun protection and skin care after sun exposure. In the first days of rest, we strongly recommend the use of these funds.

On April 16, 2011, the visa regime between Russia and Turkey was cancelled. According to the new rules, citizens of the Russian Federation can enter Turkey without a visa for a stay of up to 60 days.

Time coincides with Moscow.

The monetary unit of Turkey is the Turkish lira. The exchange rate is unstable, at the moment 1 $ = 6.50 TRY. Money can be imported in US dollars, euros or rubles, they are accepted in almost all exchange offices. You can exchange currency at exchange offices and banks. Bank branches are usually open on weekdays from 8:30 to 17 hours. Break – from 12:00 to 13:30.

There is no hourly work schedule in shops; during the tourist season, many shops are open until late at night.
It is customary to bargain in small shops and markets, you can bargain in large wholesale centers for the sale of leather and jewelry, as well as with taxi drivers.

All medical care in Turkey is paid, but if you have an insurance policy, the service is free of charge or with subsequent reimbursement of expenses according to the insurance policy (see the memo attached to the insurance policy). In the event of an insured event, you must contact the insurance company by phone numbers indicated in the insurance policy. Only with the direct notification of the insurance company and coordination by it of your actions will free (or with subsequent reimbursement of expenses) service be provided. If you plan to engage in extreme activities in Turkey, then take out a special insurance policy.

Mains voltage 220 V.

A car can only be rented if you have a driver’s license. All cars are insured with Casco. The minimum rental period is one day, mileage is not limited. Make sure the car is fully insured, including headlights and glass. Gasoline is bought independently. In the event of an accident, do not move the car until the arrival of the police. The police may not speak Russian or English and you will not be able to explain your version of the event, you must immediately inform the company where the car was rented and the representative of the host company about what happened. Don’t forget to bring your driver’s license, passport and car rental documents with you, as police checks are possible.

99% of the local population are Muslims.

The most popular purchases in Turkey are amulets against the evil eye, carpets (carpets are sold at every step, but you should buy only with a specialist – it is difficult to determine the quality yourself), ceramics (all kinds of cups and plates, vases, boxes and even painted cats and dogs), sweets (baklava of all varieties, Turkish delight, rose petal jam, marzipan, dried fruits and nuts), all kinds of spices, tea and tea set (not only black or green, but also apple, orange and berry. These, as well as other tea blends, are sold by weight in the bazaars, where you can choose your favorite flavor (they drink tea from interesting small tulip-shaped cups), jewelry (jewelry in Turkey is cheap and varied. It is worth paying attention to brooches in the form of flowers and birds.


You can take out of Russia without a bank certificate up to $ 10,000 per person. If you are exporting more than USD 10,000 per person, then you must have bank documents with you.
At the Turkish airport, be sure to include all electronic equipment, antiques and jewelry on the declaration (their presence can be checked upon departure). Duty-free import is allowed: 400 cigarettes, or 50 pieces of cigars, or 200 grams of tobacco, 5 (1000 ml each) or 7 (700 ml each) bottles of alcoholic beverages, of which no more than 3 can be of the same variety, cologne – 2 liters in uncorked bottles, perfume – 1 liter in uncorked bottles, gifts worth no more than $ 500, food within the limits of personal needs. The import of drugs, medicines containing a large dose of narcotic substances and weapons is prohibited.

Telephone communication in Turkey is very good and relatively inexpensive. You can call from the hotel, but it is more expensive than from the post office. You can buy a blue phone card for “100 units” and call the CIS from any street machine. It is better to buy cards at the post office or in large supermarkets. Post offices are open from 08:30 to 17:30, telephone call centers – until midnight. Mail identification marks – black on yellow PTT.
Cellular communication works great in Turkey. For calls to local numbers (for example, a guide in the city), it makes sense for mobile phone owners to buy a local SIM card for a few dollars, which justifies itself instantly.
You can contact Russia by +7 code, area code, subscriber’s phone number.
To call Turkey, dial + 10 90, area code.

The bus is the most popular means of communication within Turkey. The average ticket price in the city is 2.5-3 Turkish lira (0.5 US dollars). Taxi – the average cost for 1 km is 1.5 US dollars (payment by taximeter). At night (GECE) – from 24:00 to 6:00 there is a double tariff. Shuttle taxis operate from 06:00 am to 24:00 pm with a fixed fare. In small towns such as Belek, traffic ends at about 20:00 .

The tip system applies to waiters in bars and restaurants, maids in hotels, porters, guides. Tipping is optional, but if the customer is satisfied with the service, tipping is a sign of good taste. Almost always, the average tip is 10% of the bill. However, in expensive restaurants it is customary to leave up to 20%. In hotels, in taxis, they do not give tea, but the meter readings are rounded up.

for drinking it is recommended to use mineral water, which can be purchased in shops and bars of the hotel;
– we recommend storing jewelry, money and documents in a safe located in the room or in a safe at the reception desk;
– it is recommended to hand over the room key to the hotel reception. If the key is lost, the hotel administration should be notified immediately.

If you have any questions during your stay in Turkey, please contact our host, whose phone numbers are indicated in the voucher and information letter Police – 155 Info for tourists – 154 Ambulance – 112

Turkey Travel Guide

Tourist Areas in Vietnam

Tourist Areas in Vietnam

– the capital, where there is a lot of greenery, lakes, pagodas and bed monuments
– A center of culture and statehood with a thousand-year history
– Informative and interesting: Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, Temple of Literature, Pagoda on one pillar, Lake of the Returned Sword, puppet theater on the water, shopping old quarters in the city center with a silk street.

– Fabulous bay with more than 3000 quaint islands, protected by UNESCO, where Vietnamese symbols of majestic nature are combined: water, moss-covered rocks and greenery
– Informative and interesting: Cruises on sailboats or luxury yachts, excursions to mysterious, uninhabited islands with caves and grottoes made of stalactites and stalagmites.
The best time to visit is from March to October

Hue is an imperial city.
– Ancient capital built by the last Nguyen royal feudal dynasty (1802-1945)
– Famous for its poetry, ancient temples, palaces, imperial citadel, tombs of emperors of the last royal dynasty and pagodas.
– Informative and interesting: a junk ride along the quiet and romantic Fragrant River, a costumed imperial dinner accompanied by folk music, a special cuisine of Central Vietnam.
The best time to visit is from May to October.

– Da Nang and Hoi An are located in the center of Vietnam, they are separated by the picturesque Hai Van Pass with a serpentine road. – in Da Nang
there is a unique Museum of Cham culture, which has preserved the ancient relics of the once great state of Champa – Informative and interesting: the coast of Da Nang and Hoi An with a wide strip of sandy beaches – a resort area with newly built hotels on the coastline Bathing season from May to July.

– One of the most popular resorts in Vietnam, it is sunny all year round
– Numerous islands along the coast, where daily cruises are arranged
– Informative and interesting: Po Nagar Cham towers, opportunities for underwater sports, diving and scuba diving, a park has been created on one of the islands entertainment Vinpearlland with an aquarium, water slides, a shopping gallery.
The best time to visit is September to May

– Fishing villages along the sea, sand hills, coconut groves, boat piers
– Along the coast of Muine there are many hotels in a variety of styles
– Informative and interesting: red canyon, sand dune walks, windsurfing, parasurfing, fishing, golf clubs.
The best time to visit is September to May

Chi Minh City – Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon) is called the “pearl of Indochina” where there is a noticeable influence of French culture, the city has many buildings of French architecture.
– an energetic city, an Asian business center with shops, hotels, shopping centers and all kinds of bars on the roofs of high-rise hotels
– Informative and interesting: Notre Dame de Saigon, Chinatown Cho Lon, Ben Thanh market, Kuti tunnels in the vicinity of the city where Vietnamese soldiers hid during Japanese occupation, a trip to the Mekong Delta – My Tho (the largest area for rice growing, fruit growing and breeding of river fish and shrimp), spicy and refreshing cuisine of South Vietnam.

– two islands in the south of Vietnam, ideal for diving and sea cruises
– Informative and interesting: Museum of the Revolution in Con Dao, the most delicate sandy beaches, mountains covered with virgin forests and impenetrable jungle.


There is no religious fanaticism and racial prejudice in the country, and travel around the country is generally safe. However, rickshaw rides after dark should be avoided. You should not carry large amounts of money with you, especially when visiting crowded places or markets. Shoes must be removed when entering a Buddhist temple. Photographing temples and other religious buildings should only be obtained with permission.

Vaccinations for tourists entering Vietnam are not required.


  • Ninh Thuan is a province on the coast of the South China Sea. Well-groomed beaches and warm azure water are the main reason why tourists come here.
  • The vibrant and colorful villages of Ninh Thuan are home to 28 different ethnic groups, each of which will introduce you to the rich culture of Vietnam.
  • Head to the hot spring health resorts of Krong Fa and Tan Son.
  • Get to know the nature of Vietnam in the Nui Chua National Park, where you will meet rare species of animals, birds and plants.

Tourist Areas in Vietnam

Myanmar Economy

Myanmar Economy

Burma is essentially an agricultural country. Agricultural production, concentrated in the floodplains, has its main harvest in rice. About 7,000,000 tons are produced, a quantity that leaves a large margin for export. Where the rainfall is below 1000 mm., And therefore throughout the arid district, non-irrigated cultivation replaces rice with millet, sesame, groundnuts, cotton and legumes. Throughout the country, fruits, tobacco and forage plants are grown for local use. But Burma has possibility of a much greater agricultural development and official calculations indicate as many as 20 million hectares of wasteland and farmland against 6 1 / 2cultivated (excluding the territory of the Shan states). Of the latter, rice occupies 4,250,000 ha., Sesame 405,000, millet 344,000, various legumes 344,000, pistachios 129,000, cotton 121,000.

Small humped oxen are kept everywhere for pack animals and for plowing: in the delta and in the more humid districts, the stronger buffalo takes over. Goats are numerous in the dry district. An important aid to food is provided by fish, which has many edible species, both in rivers and on the coasts: the most valuable is bekti.

The major mineral product is the oil, which in the period 1921-25 has fomito an average of 276 1 / 2 million gallons (249 gallons = 1 metric ton). Mention has already been made of tin and tungsten, silver galenes and gems: to these we must add the famous Chinese jade, which is obtained from northern Burma and exported to China via the internal route of Mogaung and Bhamo.

From time immemorial the main routes for internal communications have been given by the Irawady with its tributaries. The railways (2,815 kilometers in 1925) serve more as a complement: they are owned by the province, but managed by Burma Railways Ltd. The most important goes from Rangoon to Mandalay, where it is interrupted by the course of the Irawady, but continues on the other shore of this, continuing up to Myitkyina. There is no railway communication with external countries and also the center of the oil basin, Yenangyaung, is accessed by river. The ordinary road network is in very bad conditions: there is not even one suitable for trucks, and, where there is no railway or river, the traveler has to use ox-drawn wagons, elephants or mules, and it is difficult for him to do so. more than 25-30km. per day. Outside of Rangoon and Mandalay there is a lack of hotels: however, there are government houses, where you are welcomed for a small fee, but you have to provide for food and bed yourself. Most of the villages consist of a number of quadrangular huts built of vertical planks and bamboo. The civil head is the hugyi, chosen by the village and recognized by the government.

Indigenous industries include cotton spinning and weaving, as the cheap cottons of England and Japan have nearly eliminated silk fabrics (especially in Amarapura); the lacquer industry (Pagan), the working of silver, carved wood, ceramics a little everywhere. Among the highly organized industries are forestry, oil refineries (Rangoon), silver and lead foundries (Namtu).

The main exported products are: rice, oil, timber, cotton. hides and hides, metals and minerals, legumes, rubber, lacquer; those imported: cottons, cars, household goods, coal, silk, sugar. In 1925-26 the province’s total maritime traffic was nearly 100 million pounds (9200 million lire). 86% of it passes through Rangoon; other notable ports are: Bassein, west of the delta, the port of rice; Akyab, outlet of the Arakan; Moulmein, Tavoy and Mergui serving the Tenasserim. A third of the export goes to India, more than another third to other countries of the British Empire and just a quarter to foreign countries. Import half comes from India, 1 / 5from foreign countries and the rest from other countries of the British Empire. From Italy, Burma imports cotton and wool fabrics, motors and electrical equipment, exports rice, leathers, paraffin wax and pistachio oil. The current currency in the country is that of India.

Myanmar Economy

Vietnam Cinema

Vietnam Cinema

In the first decade of the twentieth century, the French established the first screening rooms. Their commitment was concentrated above all in the field of exercise, while the production activity was reduced to current affairs films and geographical documentaries. In the 1920s the first feature films with a subject came: Kim Van Kieu (1923) shot by Frenchman EA Famechon with Vietnamese technicians and actors, Tu-Phu di hoi vo (“A bride for Tu-Phu”, 1925), Giai thoai Ba De (“The beautiful story of Signora De”, 1929), made by French based on stories drawn from local tradition and literature.

Alongside some failed experiences of collaboration between Chinese and Vietnamese (in particular the film Canh dong ma, “The flower of the cemetery”, released in 1938), the first attempts to create an entirely Vietnamese cinema, through the foundation of local film companies, were located at the end of the Thirties, which however failed to equip themselves with structures and infrastructures adequate. The Japanese invasion of 1940 stopped all turmoil and only from 1946 the Viet-Minh became promoters of a national cinema, directly linked to the war of liberation against France. Numerous projection units circulating around the country were set up, but production was reduced to propaganda documentaries. In 1953, the National Society of Cinema and Photography of Vietnam was founded by the government of Ho Chi Minh, with the task of supporting and promoting revolutionary culture. Chung mot dong song (“We live on the banks of the same river”), a love story between two young people who live on opposite sides of the river that divides the country in two.

While in Southern Vietnam the local anti-Communist production was open to the influences of American cinema and neighboring South-East Asia, Vietnam of the North increased the national film culture by creating studios, schools and associations, and increasing the number of the films produced. In the sixties and seventies the works dedicated to the re-enactment of the resistance predominate (Chim van khuyen, “The Golden Oriole “, 1962, by Nguyên Van Thong and Tran Vu; Chi tu Hau, “The fourth Miss Hau”, 1963, by Pham Ky Nam ; Vi Tuyen 17 ngay va dem, “17th parallel, day and night”, 1972, and Em be Hanoi, “The girl from Hanoi”, 1974, by Hai Ninh), to the reconstruction of the country and to the, “With the Lucs”, 1970, by Tran Vu). With the reunification of the Vietnam in 1975, the production of the South also conformed to the line of political commitment. The films of Hong Sen, one of the greatest personalities of contemporary Vietnamese cinema, author, among other things, of Canh dong hoang (“Terra devastata”, 1979), a short story of war, and of Vung gio xoay (“The region of cyclones”, 1980) on the problems of collectivization.

Other directors working in the 1980s include Phu My Ngiem, Dang What Minh, author of Bao gio cho toi (“October does not want to return”, 1987), and Ho Quong Minh, a Vietnamese with Swiss citizenship who in 1986 was returned home to shoot Karma, based on the novel by a local writer, Nguy Ngu. Of Dang What Minh we also mention Tro ve (“The Return”, 1994), in which the tragic split of the country is reflected behind a love triangle. French-trained, the Vietnamese Tran Anh Hung, in Hivo since 1988, won the Caméra d’or award in 1993 at Cannes with his debut feature film Mui du du xanh (“The scent of green papaya”). and in 1995, in Venice, the Lion of(“Cycle”).

Vietnam Cinema

Popular Destinations in Turkey

Popular Destinations in Turkey


Each Turkish resort is beautiful in its own way. Kusadasi, which means “bird island”, is deservedly called the pearl of the Aegean Sea. Today it would be more appropriate to call Kusadasi a tourist island. That is why our company has been offering holidays in this resort in Turkey for many years.

For detailed information, see the file “Useful information on Turkey”.

The main attraction of the city is Guverdzhin (Pigeon Island), on which stands the Genoese fortress. At dusk, illuminated by colorful lights, it sparkles and beckons you like a precious decoration lying on the transparent mirror of the bay. The cleanest beaches invite you to relax by the sea, and the modern equipped harbor is attractive for yachtsmen. You should definitely visit the Aqua Park and, of course, do not forget to look into the Caravanserai. Nowadays, it has become a hotel and restaurant offering a spectacular performance called “Turkish Night”. Nightlife lovers are waiting for discos and nightclubs. And of course, the city’s shopping centers will not leave anyone indifferent, because due to the proximity to the industrial Izmir, here you can inexpensively buy not only souvenirs, but also high-quality industrial goods (clothes, shoes, etc.).
However, tourists from all over the world go to Kusadasi not only for the sea, sun and relaxation. From here it is equally easy to get to places whose names we remember from the time of school – Ephesus and Miletus, Didyma and Priene, Aphrodisias and Hierapolis.


Marmaris is famous for having the longest promenade among Turkish resorts – about four kilometers, with restaurants, cafes, clubs 15-20 meters from the water. It goes continuously from the huge marina for yachts to the mountain that separates Marmaris from Icmeler.
Even Istanbul with a population of 15 million and the Bosphorus does not have such a long embankment.

On this very embankment you can find a bar or a restaurant to your liking, they go there in a row wall to wall and all are deployed towards the sea. Cuisine – for every taste – both local and European, and sea and vegetarian.

Here, an attraction not for the faint of heart, which is called the ejection seat, rises to the evening sky. ejection seat. On pillars as high as a 15-story building, a ball made of pipes is suspended on rubber cables, in which a double chair is held. Two wishing to fasten themselves to the chairs and the ball is shot up, i.e. you ejected from a combat aircraft. With a friend, if she serves in the same unit.
At the same time, the chair rotates terribly in all directions and flies up and down on rubber cables for a long time, until it loses all energy and goes down, having previously shaken out all the brains, the contents of the stomach and bladder from the volunteers. Most of all, the crowd of onlookers is crazy, which listens to the heart-rending, obscene cries of the pilots, synchronized with the movement of the catapult, and looks at the changing expressions of their faces on the big screen.

Since the sea in Marmaris comes right to the bars and restaurants, you can always take a break from dancing and swim, especially since the depth is gradually gaining there, and there are no big waves due to the fact that the bay is separated from the sea by an island.
And all this against the backdrop of a beautiful sea bay, where Admiral Nelson led his squadron 200 years ago. Whether before the battle of Aboukir, or before a quarrel with Lady Hamilton. Some historians believe that the storm of the seas refused to comply with the order of the command to return his squadron to the Balearic Islands, not because of Emma Hamilton, but because of the taverns on the Marmaris embankment.

Marmaris was built on the ancient site of Picos, a city whose creation dates back to 3500 BC. In ancient times, Marmaris was a fishing village. Marmaris was ruled by many peoples, among which were the Egyptians, Ionians, Dorians, Romans, and in 1425 it became part of the Ottoman Empire.

There are still traces of the reign of the Ottoman Suleiman the Magnificent in the city. Suleiman the Magnificent during the campaign of Rodian built a castle here – the Caravanserai of the 16th century, which today houses the archaeological museum of Marmaris. Here Suleiman gathered 200,000 warriors to attack and besiege Rhodes in 1522. The Agha Abraham Mosque dating back to 1789 is also worth a visit.

Marmaris is famous for its natural beauty, mountains clad in pine groves and a fantastic coastline full of small cozy coves.

The Phosforlu sea cave is very close. It is very convenient to go on excursions from Marmaris to other resorts in Turkey, for example, to Bodrum, Kaunos and Fethiye.

One of the favorite tourist attractions is Ataturk Park – one of the most beautiful parks in Turkey. It is located to the east of Marmaris. Ataturk is filled with incense and other dizzying scents.


The Uludag resort, located 35 km from the famous Bursa, the first capital of the Ottoman Empire, has long been well-deserved fame among lovers of winter holidays. First-class hotels, excellent service, developed infrastructure, mineral springs, magnificent nature, all this attracts vacationers.

A distinctive feature of Uludag is that here almost every hotel has its own lifts, the cost of using which is included in the price. But this does not mean that other lifts will be closed to you. For lifts that do not belong to your hotel, payment is made for each lift at the lower station. You can purchase a subscription for several lifts or days.

In winter, Uludag is an excellent ski resort, and in summer there is a great opportunity for picnics, hiking and cycling tours through the Turkish National Park. The ski season here is 120 days a year. The most favorable period for rest is from December 20 to March 20. At the beginning of the winter season in these places there is fine dry snow, and at the end – wet.

Both beginners and experienced skiers will find slopes to their taste here. Kids here for the first time get up on skis under the supervision of experienced instructors.


Palandoken – the youngest ski resort in Turkey – is located near the border with Armenia, 6 km from Erzurum. Palandoken is suitable for skiers of different skill levels.
Palandoken is the official training camp site for the Turkish Alpine Ski Team.
The skiing season is from October to May. The best time is from December 10 to May 10.
The highest point is 3176 m. The ski area is from 2200 to 3176 m. The elevation difference is 976 m.
40 km of slopes: blue slopes – 7, red slopes – 8, black slopes – 2. The longest route is 11 km. 7 lifts, the throughput of which is 6,300 people per hour. 2 children’s lifts.
Heli-ski. There are slopes for snow skiing.
Hire, qualified ski instructors.
For snowboarders, there are tracks in the resort, for the development of which it is not a pity to spend 2-3 days. After that, you can get out to the virgin lands. Snow-covered couloirs in the gorges and slopes away from the ski lifts are completely at the disposal of snowboarders.

Popular Destinations in Turkey

Sightseeing in Oman

Sightseeing in Oman

If you choose Oman as your travel destination, you go to the sultanate in the east of the Arabian Peninsula… and to an area that developed into a modern state within a few decades, but was able to preserve old traditions and thus its Arab identity. The landscape of Oman is particularly worth seeing in the narrow, fertile coastal strip of Al-Batina on the Gulf of Oman, which is separated from the desert by the Oman Mountains, which occupies most of the country. In addition to Dhiddat al-Harasis in the interior of the country, there is also the edge of the Rub al-Chali desert in the southwest. Accordingly, the climate is dry and hot, and the temperatures around the turn of the year are best suited to set out on a tour of discovery through the Sultanate. The ruins of the 7th century are particularly interesting from a cultural point of view. 000 year old city Urbar or the ruins of Qualhat, and Nizwa, the religious center of the country, where you can admire the Sultan Qaboos Mosque with its blue and gold dome as well as the monumental fortress from the 17th century In turn, you have a wide view of the city. The capital Masquat is particularly worthwhile for a tour of the old town with its narrow streets, the Sultan’s Palace, two Portuguese fortresses from the 16th century and a visit to the Bai Zubair National Museum. The tomb of the Queen of Sheba is located in Salalah, the capital of the frankincense land of Dhofar. In the mountain village of Al-Hamra you can visit old, typical mud houses. And Sur offers you shipyards in which the traditional dhows are built. In addition, Oman also has hot springs to offer.

Great Sultan Qaboos Mosque

The Great Sultan Qaboos Mosque was planned in 1992 according to the ideas of Sultan Quabus and built from 1995. The largest mosque in Oman has been open to believers, participants in study trips, students of the Islamic religion and tourists since May 4th, 2001. It is one of the special sights in Muscat and is definitely worth a visit. The mosque combines the Islamic traditions of different epochs and stands for a harmonious coexistence of all believers in the country.

The mosque as a superlative building

With the mosque, Sultan Al Qaboos created more than a house of prayer. Islamic art, culture and religious studies are at home in the huge complex in Al-Gubra on the busy main street “Al Qaboos Street” between Muscat and Sib.

The entire area covers 416,000 square meters. According to Omani tradition, it stands a little higher, surrounded by large green areas with well-tended lawn, bushes and frangipani trees. For the mosque with five minarets and two arcades, 300,000 tons of marble from Indian quarries were used. In addition to a main prayer hall and a smaller women’s prayer hall, the complex also includes a library with 20,000 valuable books, the Islamic Institute and a large information center.

Particularly noteworthy is the equipment of the main hall with a 50 m high dome. This was designed with stained glass and carries the largest crystal chandelier in the world. The chandelier is 14 m long, equipped with valuable Swarowski crystals and 1122 lamps. An imposing, hand-knotted Persian carpet with a value of more than 5 million euros lies on the floor. The wall panels with floral patterns in Persian tradition and the calligraphy on the wooden ceilings are also impressive.

Visiting the mosque is one of the most important stops when traveling through Oman. Travelers should observe the dress regulations for the Grand Sultan Qaboos Mosque. Arms and legs must be covered and women wear headscarves.

Old fortresses

Oman is still a real insider tip for holidaymakers from all over the world. If you visit the sultanate in the east of the Arabian Peninsula, you simply cannot avoid the capital Muscat. The two old fortresses Mirani and Jalali are among the greatest attractions in the city of 25,000. The most impressive and at the same time most famous fortifications in the country characterize the historic old town of Muscat and can be seen from afar.

Evidence of Ottoman craftsmanship

The two large fortresses, which are visited annually by thousands of locals and tourists from all over the world, were built at the end of the 16th century directly on the harbor to protect against intruders and were completed by the Portuguese. In the 18th century, the so-called western fortress Al Mirani was expanded to its present size according to the wishes of Imam Ahmed bin Said. From the top of the large fortress tower you have a great overview of the entire city and the immediate surroundings. The Al Jalali Fortress, also known as the East Fortress, is characterized both inside and outside by countless testimonies of Ottoman craftsmanship. A large and extensive museum is now housed in the smaller of the two fortresses.

Old fortresses Oman

Iran History

Iran History


According to Bridgat, Iran has traces of human occupation since the Stone Age. During the Neolithic, a process of sedentarization, stable food production and the establishment of short-distance exchange routes developed.

The Copper Age, characterized by the appearance of copper and painted ceramic elements in Susiana (Southwest Iran) and Sialk (central-west), extends in Iran throughout the 4th millennium BC. Urban settlements begin to emerge, in a regional process that takes place between Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Archaeological Complex of Bactria-Margiana and the Indus Valley Culture.


At the beginning of the 3rd century BC, a form of writing appears in Susa, possibly derived from the Sumerian system to represent the Elamite language. From 2000 BC the Medes and Persians, Aryan or Indo-European peoples, began to move from the plains of southern Russia and Central Asia to Europe and Asia.

The Median rule, however, was brief, thanks to the work undertaken by a Persian nobleman of the Achaemenid family, Cyrus (555-529 BC), king of Anshan, who unified the Persians, subdued the Medes, and conquered Babylon. Syria, the Mediterranean Levant and Asia Minor. His work of conquest was continued by his son and successor, Cambyses (530-522), who annexed Egypt and marked the maximum extension of the Achaemenid Empire, configuring the largest empire hitherto known in the Near East.

The splendor of the Persian Empire is marked by the figure of Darius I (522-486). He devoted himself primarily to organizing the vast inherited empire through satrapies. He drew up a network of roads that were intended to link the various parts of the empire, the most famous of which is the Royal Road from Susa to Sardis, and also palaces and monuments in the capitals: Susa and Persepolis. He made Mazdeism an official religion. With him also began the decline of the Achaemenid Empire, by undertaking a fight against the Greeks that would become known as the medical wars and continued by his successors: Xerxes, Artaxerxes, Darius II, Artaxerxes II and Darius III. The continuous defeats of the Persians culminated in the invasion (in 334 BC and the end of the empire itself by Alexander the Great (336 BC). At his death, the successors or Diádocos divided their territories, and passed to Seleuco I Nicátor (300 BC).

Middle Ages

When the Arab conquest took place, after 641, the country was Islamized, but it maintained, like almost no province in the Arab empire, its marked individuality, both in its language and in the peculiar orientation of the arts and letters. When the crisis of the Baghdad caliphate struck, Persia gained virtual independence under the descendants of Tahir, the last Arab viceroy, and then under the Seleucid Persian or Turkish dynasties. Despite the political upheaval, the cultural and scientific life of the period was remarkably rich, of which the poet, mathematician, philosopher and astronomer Ummar al-Khayyam is an exponent.

Modern age

In 1258 a new era opens with the Mongol invasion of Kublai Khan. After three centuries of Mongol domination, the dynastic struggles between the descendants of Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) and the Ottomans ended up making room for the Persian Ismail Sha. His grandson Abbas I (1557 – 1629) managed to unify the country, expel the Turks from the western area and the Portuguese who had occupied the Hormuz region, as well as conquer part of Afghanistan. For a short period, Iran was the hegemonic power, from India to Syria. But then he had to face the ambitions of the Russians who were advancing in Central Asia and the English, who were approaching from the Gulf and Afghanistan.

The king’s weakness in the face of the growing foreign presence gave rise to a strong nationalist movement, influenced by the ideas of Syrian pan-Islamic intellectuals.

Recent history

In 2002, the president of the United States George W. Bush included Iran in the so-called axis of evil, alluding to it being a state that supports terrorism. Iran is also accused of trying to develop an atomic weapon.

Iran accuses the United States of waging “psychological warfare” by spreading false news about Tehran’s plans to make atomic bombs. According to the Iranian Foreign Ministry, Tehran will continue its peaceful nuclear activities without being influenced by the statements of the head of the CIA, Leon Panetta, who said that the Persian nation could build two atomic bombs within two years, justifying a foreseeable attack by United States against Iran.

The US, the largest driver of sanctions on Iran and North Korea for their nuclear programs, has more than 6,000 tactical nuclear warheads, and invests $ 40 billion a year in its nuclear arsenal and in developing new ones. destruction systems, which go to the coffers of the multinationals of war nucleated in the North American Military Industrial Complex.

Except for Russia, the US mathematically surpasses all the capitalist powers on the planet by 9 to 1 in nuclear power and its capacity to deploy troops and conventional weapons is close to the same percentages.

The Islamic Republic was subjected to the fourth round of sanctions by the United Nations Security Council as a result of the development of its nuclear plans, to which the United States and the European powers attribute military objectives.

Iran History

Japanese Literature by Periods

Japanese Literature by Periods

Japanese literature spans a period of nearly two millennia of writing. In the earliest works we see the influence of Chinese literature, but Japan quickly developed its own style. When Japan reopened its ports to Western trade and diplomacy in the 19th century, Western literature greatly influenced its writers, Western influence is still evident today.

Nara period (710-794)

Japanese literature has its origins in oral tradition, the first records of this literature were made in the 8th century after the writing system was introduced from China. The Kojiki (record of ancient subjects) and Nihon shoki (chronicle of Japan) were two government projects that were completed in 712 and 720 respectively. The most brilliant work of this period was the Man’yoshu, an anthology of 4,500 poems composed by people of all walks of life and collected around 759.

The “tanka” verses of 31 syllables (5-7-5-7-7) also began to be worked on. In 905 the poetic anthology: Kokin wakashu or Kokinshu, a collection of ancient and modern poems, was published under the order of the emperor. It was a very important post.

Heian Period (794-1185) In the resplendent aristocratic culture that flourished in the 11th century, when the use of the Chinese-derived hiragana alphabet was spreading, the ladies of the court played the leading role in the development of literature. One of them, Murasaki Shikibu wrote a 54-chapter novel Genji monogatari (The Tale of Genji) (early 11th century); Sei Shonagon wrote Makura no shosi (The Pillow Book) a collection of essays and notes (around 996).

Others wrote diaries and stories that continue to be read today. The appearance of Konjaku monogatari (Tales of a time that has passed) around 1120 added a new dimension to literature. This collection of more than 1000 Buddhist and secular accounts from India, China and Japan is important for the number of descriptions of the life of the nobility and the life of the people in Japan at that time.

Kamakura-Muromachi period (1185-1573)

In the last half of the 12th century, the warriors of the Taira (Heike) clan seized the imperial power of the court, forming a new aristocracy. Heike mono-gatari (Heike’s Tale) portrays the triumphs and defeats of the Taira in their wars with the Minamoto (genji) clan and was completed in the first half of the 13th century.

This period also produced intimate literature such as Chomei’s Hojoki de Kamo (Description of my cabin) (1212), which reflects on the uncertainty of existence; Yoshida Kenko’s Tsurezuregusa (Essays in Free Time) (1330) a work with impressive reflections on life. Both works raise the question of spiritual salvation.

Edo period (1603-1868)

In this period, two very important figures emerged in prose: Ihara Saikaku who realistically portrayed the life of Osaka merchants and Chikamatsu Monzaemin who used joruri, a way of telling hostilities with kabuki songs and works. These two writers made literature flourish. Years later Yosa Buson wrote haiku, excellent works that portrayed nature. The writer Ueda Akinari produced several works on Gothic stories that were called Ugetsu monogatari, Tales of the Moonlight and the Rain (1776).

Meiji period to the present

The Meiji period is the stage in which Japan under Western influence began to develop a more modern literature. At this time the unification of written and spoken language was advocated; and a new form of novel was accepted thanks to Futabatei Shimei’s Ukigumo (Clouds without course) (1887). The translation of foreign poetry helped create a new poetic genre and its corresponding literary movement.

Novelists Mori Ogai and Natsume Soseki studied in Germany and Great Britain, respectively, and their works reflect the influence of these countries. Soseki directed several literary figures. One of them, Akutagawa Ryunosuke, wrote several novels based on his knowledge of Japanese classics. His suicide in 1927 was taken as a symbol of the agony that Japan was experiencing due to the rapid processes of modernization, these changes were also subjects of literature.

In 1968 Kawabata Yasunari received the Nobel Prize for literature, he was the first Japanese to get it, years later in 1994 Oe Kenzaburo, also Japanese, also received it. These two writers and other contemporary authors such as Tanizaki Jun’ichiro, Mishima Yukio, Abe Kobo, and Inoue Yasushi have seen their works translated into various languages.


According to bridgat, the culture of Japan is the result of a historical process that begins with the waves of immigration originating from the continent of Asia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, followed by a strong cultural influence from China and, later, a long period of isolation with the the rest of the world called Sakoku from the Tokugawa shogunate until the beginning of the Meiji Era, at the end of the 19th century, where it received immense foreign influence and which increased after the end of World War II. This resulted in a culture distinct from other Asian cultures.

In Japan, personal interrelationships are highly influenced by the ideas of “honor”, “obligation” and “duty”, and which represents a different custom to an individualistic and liberal culture of Western countries. The conceptions of “morality” and “desirable behaviors” are less practiced in family, school and friendship situations, however a more formal practice is observed in front of superiors or unknown people.

On the other hand, the Japanese have an intricate and complicated sense of humor, which is highly reflected in language, culture, religion and ethics, which is sometimes considered very difficult to interpret by other cultures.

Japanese Literature

Saudi Arabia Main Cities

Saudi Arabia Main Cities


Mecca, Al-Makka, city ​​in the west of Saudi Arabia, in a rocky, desert-like basin of the Hidjas landscape, between the coastal plain and the highlands, 277 m above sea level, (2018) 1.97 million residents.

As the birthplace of Muhammad, Mecca is the holiest city and most important place of pilgrimage for Islam (Hajj; 700,000–900,000 pilgrims annually, mainly via the Djidda airport), a pure cult and cultural center (excluding agriculture and industry) with an Islamic-theological college, school for Islamic jurisprudence, Saudi Arabian institute for further education, several madrasas and libraries; Water supply originally from the Ain Subaida well, 15 km away, today from seawater desalination plants in Jeddah. Mecca and its immediate surroundings are not accessible to non-Muslims.

The center of the city and the most important goal of the pilgrimage is the Kaaba in the courtyard of the main mosque (built 775–785, today’s shape in the 16th century, expanded in 1955; seven minarets). Other places of pilgrimage are the Semsem well and the graves of the companions and the first wife of Muhammad (Hadidja) in the Al-Mala cemetery. R. Gutbrod, F. Otto and Hermann Kendel built a mosque and a hotel in 1974 with conference rooms grouped around a green inner courtyard. The world’s largest clock has been located on the Mecca Royal Clock Tower since 2010.


Mecca, mentioned as Makoraba around 150 AD, was already an important trading center as a crossroads of old caravan roads in the border area between the rain- cultivated areas of the southwestern Arabian highlands and the desert steppes in pre-Islamic times. The Koraic, also because of its religious attraction (through the Kaaba), made it a center of the Trans-Arab caravan trade at the end of the 6th / beginning of the 7th century, Mecca gained political status through Mohammed(622 Hidjra; 630 conquest of Mecca) as the center of the Islamic world Meaning. Looted by the Karmatians in 930, 960–1803 and 1813–1924 Sherif of the Hasan family (grandson of Mohammed) had the emirate of Mecca owner (10th to 15th centuries under nominal sovereignty of the rulers of Egypt, since 1517 the Ottomans); 1803-13 Mecca belonged to the Wahhabi Empire. In 1916, Husain I. Ibn Ali made himself independent of Turkish suzerainty, but had to give way for good after the occupation of the city by Ibn Saud in 1925; In 1926 Mecca was incorporated into Saudi Arabia.


According to bridgat, Medina, Al-Madina, is an oasis city in Saudi Arabia, in the Hidjas in an irrigated plain at the foot of a volcanic plateau, 639 m above sea level, (2018) 1.4 million residents.

Islamic University (founded in 1961), Taibah University (founded in 2003), libraries. Medina is (after Mecca) the second most important place of pilgrimage in Islam (closed to non-Muslims) and an important trading center; extensive date palm groves and vegetable gardens; Seawater desalination plant; Airfield.

The “Great Mosque” (built in 707–709), which was groundbreaking for the development of the Islamic mosque, with a. the tomb of the Prophet Mohammed, crowned by a green dome, was reconstructed and rebuilt after fires (1256 and 1481) (especially 15th / 16th centuries), most recently in the late Ottoman period (1848-60). Much of this renovation was replaced in the first half of the 1950s by a new building with two inner courtyards, which was greatly expanded in 1985-90, so that it now occupies almost the entire space of the former, demolished old town and takes into account the rapidly increasing number of pilgrims (Space for 130,000 people).

Medina, when Jathrib was already an important city on the Frankincense Route in pre-Islamic times and since the 1st millennium BC. Inhabited in 622 BC, took in Mohammed and his companions after his emigration from Mecca (Hidjra) and was renamed in Medina (Arabic for “place of [religious] jurisdiction”), the center of the early Islamic community he created (632–656 capital of the Arab-Islamic empire and residence of the caliphs). The Umayyad Caliph Walid I (705-715) left the site of the former house and the grave of Muhammad and his daughter Fatima build the “Great Mosque” with the help of Byzantine builders; therefore, as the “city of the prophets” or “enlightened city”, Medina became one of the holy places of Islam. From 1517/1532 under Ottoman rule, 1803–13 belonging to the Wahhabi Empire, 1916–18 center of the “Kingdom of Hidjas” of Husain I Ibn Ali, Medina came to Saudi Arabia in 1924.


Djidda [d ʒ -], Jeddah, Jidda [d ʒ -], Jedda [d ʒ -], port city in Saudi Arabia, on the Red Sea, 70 km west of Mecca, second largest with (2018) 4.4 million residents City of the country.

Djidda is the seat of foreign diplomatic missions and the state radio and television company, has a university (founded in 1967), technical schools and museums (Abdul Raouf Khalil Museum). As the economic center of the country, it is the seat of numerous banks and insurance companies as well as the Saudi Arab Airlines; Oil refinery, steel rolling mill, cement factory, assembly plant for commercial vehicles, large power plant, seawater desalination plants. Main trading port in the country; the international airport, 25 km north of Jeddah, is one of the largest and most modern on earth (design: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill); Terminal with large tent roof construction (completed in 1982). The port and airport are meeting points for pilgrims to Mecca.

Three reconstructed city gates give an impression of the former city fortifications (destroyed in 1940). In the listed old town (UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2014) there are tower-like houses with wooden-barred oriels from the 18th and 19th centuries. Sights include the restored Nasif House and the Al-Shafee Mosque. The skyrocketing oil profits since 1973 made the modern expansion of the city possible. The sports hall of the university (1981) was built by F. Otto and R. Gutbrod. The National Commercial Bank was built by the SOM group of architects from 1982. The Kingdom Tower has been located since 2013 (Architect: A. Smith) under construction, which, with a planned height of around 1,000 m, will be the tallest building in the world upon completion. In the open-air museum “Corniche” a. Sculptures by H. Moore and V. Vasarély.

Djidda, a pre-Islamic foundation, important in the Middle Ages as a fortress and especially as a port for Mecca, came to the Ottomans after 1532. At the beginning of the 19th century it was the scene of the clashes between Mehmed Ali and the Wahhabis. Up until the destruction by the Wahhabis there was a monumental burial place of the ancestral mother Eva (Djidda is the Arabic term for “grandmother”). In 1916, Djidda came to the Kingdom of Hidjas, and in 1925 to Saudi Arabia.

jeddah saudi arabia

Customized trip – Everest Base Camp & Island Peak 6189m Climbing trip

Customized trip – Everest Base Camp & Island Peak 6189m Climbing trip

Basic travel information

Climbing trip in the legendary Mount Everest National Park, Nepal’s Himalayas.

We get used to the thin atmosphere by visiting Mount Everest base camp before climbing Island Peak. The demanding but rewarding journey culminates in the ascent to the top of Island Peak, or Imja Tsen in Nepali (6189 m). The ascent takes place along fixed ropes with the help of logging and ice irons.

The mountain is not technically difficult and is well suited for the first 6,000-meter Himalayan peak. The trip is suitable for experienced hikers and those interested in mountaineering.




Arrival in Kathmandu, transfer to hotel. In the evening there is the opportunity to make last minute purchases for hiking.

NOTE: Hotel accommodation according to international practice from 14:00. If your flight arrives in the morning, when booking your trip, select the day before arrival as the arrival date.



An early flight to the Everest area to Lukla, where our trek begins. Our equipment will be transferred to our sher carriers. Overnight in Phakding village (2610 m).




We ascend through the pine and spruce forest sherpa capital, Namche Bazaar (3450 m).




We get used to the thin atmosphere by taking a few hours walk to the vantage point above the city from where there is a magnificent view of the Everest massif




The route of the day begins at about 2h with a steady transition to Sanasa, after which we ascend a calm and airy route to the pass of Mong La, where we will have lunch. We descend to Phortse Thanga, from where about an hour ascent to the village of Phortse (3840 m). The scenery of the Kang Tega and Gokyo Valley glaciers is bold.




One of the most beautiful hiking trails takes us high above the Imja Khola River to the village of Pangboche (3860 m), one of the highest year-round villages in the Everest region.




Our route rises steadily over the tree line to the village of Dingboche (4410 m) at the beginning of the Khumbu Valley. We get used to the thin atmosphere and take a trip to the village of Chukung (4730 m), located at the foot of the impressive three-kilometer south wall of Lhotse. Island Peak appears from Chukung for the first time.



At this altitude, it is good to get another rest period to adjust, just relax or enjoy a nice day trip to Chukung overlooking the Imja valleys and Lhotse face.




Short hike to Dughla (4600 m). In the afternoon, the opportunity to ascend to the edge of the Khumbu Glacier, which offers stunning views of the upper valley.




Following the Khumbu Glacier, we ascend to the barren village of Lobuche (4910 m). In the afternoon the opportunity to climb to the edge of the glacier to admire the huge stream of ice.




We continue our journey following the Khumbu Glacier to Gorakshep (5140 m). Opportunity to ascend the ridge of Kala Pathar (5545 m), which offers the best views of the summit of Everest and the base camp.




We hike following the edge of the glacier and eventually along the Khumbu Glacier itself to Everest Base Camp (5360 m). The views of Khumbu Icefall are breathtaking. We return the same route to Gorakshep and on to Lobuche.




We ascend a familiar route to the village of Chukung (4730 m) where we will stay for the next 2 nights.




A day of rest and practice in Chukung. We practice the rope and climbing techniques needed to climb Island Peak and gather strength for the coming dawn.




Following the edge of the glacier, we ascend to the base camp of Island Peak (5150 m) and prepare for the ascent of the next night. (L, I)




We start the ascent towards the top of Imja Tsen (6189 m) in the morning in the light of the headlamps. We ascend from the glacier to the top with the help of solid ropes. Stunning views of the south wall of Lhotse, Ama Dablam and Makalu. (UNDER)



We have set aside an extra day for the summit in case of bad weather or illness. (UNDER)




After the summit, we return to Chukung and further down towards Namche Bazaar. (A)




In Namche, we celebrate the last days of hiking by taking a sauna in the Finnish sauna and making the last souvenir purchases in the small alleys.




We hike to Lukla and have our last supper together with the whole expedition. We say goodbye to the plaintiffs, chefs and helpers before the next morning flight back to the hustle and bustle of Kathmandu.




We fly early in the morning from Lukla to the human bustle of Kathmandu.



We will visit Kathmandu’s Royal Square and Swayambhunath’s Buddhist stupa and relax before returning. (I)




Transfer from the hotel to the airport. (A)


Customized trip - Everest Base Camp & Island Peak 6189m climbing trip

Money and Fund Transfer in Turkmenistan

Money and Fund Transfer in Turkmenistan

According to plus-size-tips, the Turkmenistan currency is the new Turkmenistan manat (TMT). The exchange rate is set by the Turkmenistan Central Bank and has been based on a rate of 3.41 manat per dollar since it was devalued in January 2015. With this exchange rate, the currency is considered significantly overvalued. Accordingly, a lively black market for currency transactions has developed. The deviation from the official exchange rate is between 20 and 100% depending on the season (smaller deviation in summer than in winter), day of the week (the greatest deviation is achieved in the middle of the week) and time (smaller deviation at noon than in the morning).

In the course of the current economic crisis, the TMT on the black markets fell significantly in value in the course of 2017 and is currently 4 to 7 TMT per US dollar, depending on the region and negotiating skills. Taking into account the associated (considerable!) Risks, visitors can therefore significantly reduce the costs of their stay in the country with good negotiations.

However, exchanging money outside of the state-licensed exchange offices and banks is illegal and is severely punished. The risk is incalculable. Accordingly, black market transactions are urgently advised against, despite the tempting exchange rates. In addition, every time you change money, you have to obtain an exchange receipt stating that the exchange has taken place legally. Receipts issued on the black market are often crude forgeries that can hardly be identified as such by the visitor, but unequivocally by the inspectors upon departure and then lead to major problems.

Traders still use the units of the old Turkmenistan manat, but for the sake of simplicity reduced by a factor of 1000. If a trader requests “150” for a product in the bazaar, this can mean 150 TMT (about 44 USD according to the official exchange rate or 25 USD if it was exchanged at a cheap black market rate). As a rule, however, this means 150,000 old Turkmenistan manats and accordingly 30 TMT, which in turn results in a dollar price of 5 to 8 USD. Whether the product offered in the example is offered for USD 5 or USD 44 depends on whether the retailer is calculating in the old or new manat as well as on the honesty and skill of the visitor in exchanging his foreign currency in TMT.

It should be noted that hotels, travel agencies and other service providers are increasingly requesting receipts from state banks for the exchange of currency when paying in TMT.

All foreign currencies must be declared upon entry. It is not allowed to export more foreign currency out of the country than was brought in on entry. The difference between imported foreign exchange and the (lower) sum of exported foreign exchange must be proven by means of exchange receipts during random exit controls. It is essential to keep the exchange receipts issued for every legal exchange of money. These controls can be time-consuming, and a corresponding waiting time should be taken into account when planning the time to cross the border. In line with the increasing discrepancy between the official exchange rate and the exchange rate traded on the street, these controls have been tightened since the beginning of 2015.

Incorrect information in the currency form will be severely punished. The import or export of money that goes beyond the usual needs should be clarified with the Turkmenistan business partners to avoid difficulties.

Almost all payments are made in cash. Very few hotels accept credit cards (VISA, Master Card). Credit cards are unknown outside of these hotels. Dollar bills can be changed at all major banks, euros at the branches of Prezidentbank and some other banks. The commissioned tourism organization can provide information on this. In any case, make sure that the dollar and euro bills are absolutely flawless. The bills will be rejected if they are damaged, discolored or marked. If they show only minor damage or several kinks, it is occasionally possible to exchange at least at a worse exchange rate. All US $ bills printed before 1996 will be rejected without exception. In addition, exchanging US $ 100 bills can be difficult.

The export of manat is not allowed, but is tolerated for the smallest amounts (in the sense of souvenirs)

Outside of Turkmenistan, it is not possible to buy new Turkmenistan manats or to exchange them for other currencies.

The exchange of manat for foreign currency has not been possible without restrictions since 2016. No consistent regulation is currently discernible in this regard. Numerous banks forbid the redemption entirely, some only exchange upon presentation of exchange receipts as proof of legally acquired manat, with some banks the redemption is still successful. In line with the unpredictable development, it is therefore advisable to orient the exchange of foreign currency in manat to actual needs and to exchange them if necessary. The exchange of foreign currency in manat is possible at any time without any problems.

Experience has shown that foreigners can usually still be exchanged for comparatively small sums by submitting the exchange receipts as proof of the previously legal exchange of foreign currency into manats. The exchange receipt will then be canceled according to the amount exchanged.

ATMs are extremely rare. Locations of functioning machines are currently not known.

Due to the constantly changing regulations, no guarantee can be given for this information either. If in doubt, it makes sense to inquire at the tourism agency and the relevant Turkmenistan embassy.


Sign for the Prezidentbank Turkmenistan

The Best Street Food Cities in Asia

The Best Street Food Cities in Asia

George Town in Malaysia

George Town in Malaysia

My last three stops are literally being traded as the Mecca of street food . We’ll start with what is probably the best street food city in Malaysia: George Town on Penang in western Malaysia, which has also made it onto the UNESCO World Heritage List.

You should try this:

  • Char koay teow
  • Dim Sum
  • Nasi Kandar
  • Satay
  • Nasi Campur

The city has long been known to foodies and Asia lovers as a top destination for good and above all inexpensive street food, so that George Town has rightly earned a place on the list of the best street food cities. The Malaysian cuisine, which is similar to the Indonesian, has a mix of cultures and tastes ready for you. Indian, Chinese, hot, mild, sweet, sour – in Malaysia it’s definitely the mix that makes the difference. Taste your way through Malaysian cuisine in the buildings called Hawker Center before going on a sightseeing tour of one of the most diverse cities in the country. Tip: Especially at the George Town Festival, which takes place every summer, the whole city is on its feet and shows what it can do culturally. Well then, selera makan yang baik, bon appetit!

Thailand – not only worth a visit in culinary terms

Singapore - the mother of street food

Still popular with foodies despite the ban, Thailand’s capital is Bangkok, where it’s incredibly difficult to escape the delightful smell exuding from the food stalls. According to, at every corner you also come into contact with locals, who like to bring you closer to their culture on this way.

You should try this:

  • Thai curry
  • pad Thai
  • Sticky rice with mango
  • Papaya salad

In this context, I can recommend Bangkok’s night markets , because locals in particular like to eat there. When it comes to the selection of stands, there are now even street food guides who are supposed to make the selection much easier and also give helpful tips on the way so that you know exactly what is ahead of you. In general, it can be said that Thailand’s cuisine scores with freshness, healthy and light ingredients and quick preparation. The different curries are always recommended (have you read my Bangkok tips , do you know what to look for here!), Fried rice or fried noodles with all kinds of vegetables and all kinds of soups. And certainly one or the other is brave enough to do the same giving fried insects a chance. These are considered a delicacy in Thailand and score with their high protein content. Unfortunately, most of the street food stalls in Thailand’s capital, Bangkok, have now been banned by the government . Nevertheless, you can still find the typical food stalls in the back streets of the metropolis. Kor hai mue nee pen mue arhan tea aroi na!

Singapore – the mother of street food

Singapore - the mother of street food

Have you already had to loosen your belt or have you even slipped into your sweatpants? Now it is time to mobilize the last of your strength to pay a visit to THE street food city par excellence.

You should try this:

  • Dim Sum
  • Satay skewers
  • Lor Mee
  • Katong Laksa
  • Curries

We’re talking about Singapore! An annual street food festival, countless guides to help you find the perfect location, huge malls that want to outdo each other in terms of the number of their street food stands. As you can see, everything in Singapore depends on the concept of “food to go”. Here, too, you should try curries, soups and noodles, but also try crabs (served whole) with chilli, “dim sum” (filled and steamed dumplings) or satay skewers with peanut sauce. A poem, I tell you. If you want something to look at with dessert, you should go for Ice Kacang. This “mountain” of all kinds of exotic ingredients gets its bright color from condensed milk, which is dripped over the top together with rose syrup and sarsis syrup. The saying “eat with your eyes” takes on a completely different meaning here, doesn’t it? You should definitely visit Hong Kong Soya Sauce Chicken Rice and Noodle , the cookshop has even been awarded a Michelin star .

That brings us to the end of my street food journey! Surely you were able to collect a few suggestions for your next travel destination and why shouldn’t this time be chosen based on its culinary highlights ? Have you discovered any interesting street food on your travels or do you have a tip for me as to where my next culinary journey should take me? Then always bring it on! Until then I have to get rid of some ballast …

Discoverers and vegetarians listened to and off to Tel Aviv

Now I’m going to Israel, more precisely to Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv is not only an ideal destination to break out of your travel routine, it is also ideal for discovering new, exciting dishes.

You should try this:

  • Falafel
  • Hummus
  • Sabich
  • Shakshuka

Especially the vegetarians among you will find a true paradise here, but all dishes will certainly taste delicious to meat eaters. Falafel in all possible combinations is probably Tel Aviv’s most famous street food and is eaten here almost around the clock.

The fried balls (primarily made from pureed chickpeas or beans as well as spices and herbs) come with tahini (sesame paste) or hummus (chickpea puree) in a flatbread and can then be eaten with pleasure by hand. Sabich actually comes from Iraq, but is also gaining popularity in Israel. Behind this is a pita that is filled with fried aubergines, eggs, pickled cucumbers, onions and hummus, although the composition varies depending on the location and provider. You can find the best at Frishman Falafel & Frishman Sabich near Tel Aviv Port. With this delicacy in hand, you can then look for a quiet place on the harbor promenade and keep an eye on the hustle and bustle of the metropolis.

Vietnam Travel Plan

Vietnam Travel Plan

Shot for VM by abbreviationfinder, Vietnam is the country with friendly people, culture, food experiences and wonderful beaches. As a visitor here, you are regarded with curiosity and a never-failing hospitality. The Vietnamese culture is exciting and history is reminded everywhere in the many fascinating sights. Here is soft white sand, clear water and palm trees that provide much-needed shade. The Mekong River flows down from Laos via Cambodia and offers fantastic experiences along the way. Make short excursions from the boat and take the opportunity to visit the countryside, why not by bike! You can not get closer to the population, highly recommended.



Many travelers consider Hanoi to be the most beautiful capital city in Asia. It is the combination of esplanades surrounded by large trees and small intimate streets along with low-rise buildings and many open spaces with parks and lakes. In addition to this, Hanoi has active commercial life, good cafes, fantastic street food and many pagodas, churches and temples. You should experience this – it’s a great mix!

Halong Bay
Halong Bay takes your breath away! In this scenic area are no less than 3000 sugar-top-shaped islands that stretch towards the Chinese border. Crossing the turquoise waters and visiting the thousand-year-old limestone caves is a fantastic experience that will be long forgotten. There is a lot to discover and in the archipelago it is easy to find a peaceful place where you can swim, fish or just take it easy surrounded by majestic scenery. This is a very special and romantic getaway.

Hoi An
Is the highlight of any trip to Vietnam. This city is full of charm and history and has largely escaped destruction during all the wars that have befallen the country. The once sleepy village on the river bank is now a tourist town with hotels, restaurants, bars, tailors and souvenir shops dominating the streetscape of the old center. Despite this sense of unreality, Hoi An’s charisma is pervasive.

Saigon, or Ho Chi Minh City, is the most modern and vibrant city in Vietnam. There are many reasons to stay a few days in Ho Chi Minh City and the historical sights are just a few of them. The Reunification Palace, Ho Chi Minh City Museum and the Cu Chi Tunnel showcase parts of modern Vietnamese history and are definitely worth a visit. The city offers beautiful art, exotic shopping and fragrant noodle soup. But perhaps it is still the knowledge that one of the most significant wars in modern history took place here that most people associate with the city.

A cruise that is far from today’s mammoth ships but instead a quiet journey that takes you back to colonial times. From the water you experience nature and local life in a completely different way than from land. Houses, villages, temples and people’s smiles come very close. The Mekong River is the lifeblood of millions of people and it is teeming with life both in the water and along the shores. There is always something to stare at or someone to wave to. The river is one of the world’s longest and most water – rich.


Saigon “by night”.
You will be picked up with scooters at the hotel at 18.00. Your first stop is at Café Zoom to “see the world go by” (quoted by Lonely Planet), enjoy a cocktail and light meals before your dinner at a local restaurant. You will experience Saigon’s nightlife as the locals do, everything from the saddle of a Vespa. You make your way through the bustling traffic to Chinatown and then to District 4, along busy streets and alleys, to experience the nightlife, try food and drink from street food, places that few tourists find on their own. You continue from District 4 to District 3 and pass through the center on the way to Banh Xeo, with food specialties from southern Vietnam. A little later in the evening you make a back-street stop at a café with live music and finally you have a drink at a local bar before you return to your hotel at 22.00.


According to Countryaah, Vietnam stretches just over 160 km along the Gulf of Tonkin, the South China Sea and the Gulf of Siam in Southeast Asia. The country borders China, Laos and Cambodia and is on the surface as three quarters of Sweden. Where it is narrowest, the country is only 50 km from the coast to the western border.


Vietnam is located in the tropical region and especially in the south, the climate is hot and humid. Since a large part of the country is mountainous, the climate elsewhere is rather subtropical. In the north and at high altitudes it can be really cool.


Swedish citizens can stay in Vientnam for up to 15 days without a visa. A valid passport and departure ticket must be presented on arrival. If you do not have an exit ticket or want to stay in the country for more than 15 days, you should apply for a visa in advance.

A visa is required for Cambodia.


Viet Nam Dong VND

100VND = 0.04SEK


Vietnamese is the official language. At least thirty minority languages ​​(eg Thai, Thai, Chinese).


Mandatory – The yellow fever vaccination is required if you arrive from certain countries in Africa or South America.

Recommended – Malaria prophylaxis. Check with your vaccination center for personal needs.

Vietnam 2