Category: North America

Mexico in the 1930’s Part 2

Mexico in the 1930’s Part 2

The administration of this industry was entrusted to the Confederation of Mexican workers, which celebrated the presidential decision with a day of national jubilation. Moreover, the valorisation of workers ‘trade unions and their insertion into national life corresponds to Cárdenas’ program, as is one of the essential aspects of his policy that of aiming for the approval and favor of vast social circles, rather than isolated politicians.. In fact, he aimed to conquer the agricultural masses, with the application of the law on agrarian reform, those workers, with particular legislative provisions and with the laws of nationalization, and the army with an improvement in wages and salaries and with a radicalization of the military system.

In the popular education sector, the Cárdenas government continued the fight against illiteracy, which still stood at 59 percent in 1930. To this end, he increased the budget of the Ministry of Education and stimulated the construction of new schools (10,000 in 1935, 11,000 in 1936, 13,600 in 1937).

With regard to religious politics and the conflict between Church and State, the Cárdenas has, in a certain sense, attenuated the intransigent lines of Calles’ secular politics, or at least has attenuated the demagogic character of the same, since it is now believed that the Calles he used the anti-religious struggle to satisfy the revolutionary instincts of the masses and distract their attention from the socio-economic problems which he preferred to leave unsolved. That this more elastic tendency of the Cárdenas corresponds to the reality of things is also confirmed in a certain sense by the apostolic letter to the Mexican Church of Pius XI of March 28, 1937 which, while condemning the policy of the Mexican government, gave a glimpse of certain possibilities of conciliation.. In domestic politics, in May 1938 Cárdenas vigorously acted against the gen. Cedillo who had rebelled in the state of San Luis Potosí.

In the field of international relations, Mexico’s position in recent years has been marked by the policy of “good neighborliness” with the United States of America (which absorb most of Mexican exports) and by manifestations of societalism and pro-Sovietism in the relations with other states (in particular in the Ethiopian and Spanish questions). The hoped-for “Mexicanization” of the economy, which backfires completely against the foreign capital employed there and, in particular, the mentioned nationalization of oil resources, have aroused the protests of the most affected states, Great Britain and the United States, and have highlighted the reasons for a disagreement that will not be so easy to settle, because the governments concerned appear determined to carry out the work of defending the interests of their citizens to the end. The “good neighborly” policy with the United States has been compromised to a certain extent; as for England, the situation has worsened considerably due to the breakdown of diplomatic relations between the two countries, which took place on the initiative of Mexico which on May 14 recalled its representative in London (the British government replied, on the 26th, with the reminder of his representative in Mexico). It will be necessary to see if a compromise and understanding formula will still be possible, bearing in mind the strategic convenience for England of supplying Mexican oil.

All this work of structural reforms of the economy, the agitated social struggles and the extremist orientation of domestic and foreign politics seem to have served to tighten more completely around the idea of ​​the reconquest the Mexican people, but they have still had little success in stimulating agricultural and industrial production. Undoubtedly, the agrarian reform constitutes a very complex provision whose developments it is not yet possible to discern, as it is still being implemented. It has upset the lines of the Mexican economy and has wreaked havoc in agricultural production. The other social changes have also had a disturbing result, so that the only real finding that can be made is that Mexican productive capacity has improved very slightly. The population, on the other hand, according to official estimates which cannot be very precise due to the backwardness of the statistical services, would have increased by 2 between 1931 (date of the last census) and June 1936. 321,000 units, that is, the increase of this five-year period would have been greater than that of the decade 1921-31. It should also be borne in mind that Mexico is pursuing a policy of pronounced self-sufficiency, so that the found deficient improvement of certain branches of production finds its compensation in the improvement of new ones. During the recovery phase of the world economy, between 1934 and 1937, Mexico was favored by the high prices of certain raw materials, especially metals, which compensated for the deficiencies in production. The trade balance therefore showed a satisfactory upward trend as can be seen from the following data (in millions of pesos):

Finance. – We give below the figures, in millions of pesos, of the balance sheets since 1932.

As of December 31, 1936, the external debt amounted to 892 million and the internal debt to 434 million.

In July 1933 the peso was pegged to the dollar at the rate of 3.55 pesos per 1 dollar; at the beginning of 1938, however, the exchange rate was 4.28 pesos per 1 dollar. In connection with North American politics, the demonetization of silver was decreed on April 25, 1935. An important monetary-banking reform was then implemented on August 28, 1936 with two decrees that each conferred unlimited liberating power to the new notes of the Bank of Mexico (which became the sole issuing bank) and to the monetary certificates of the value of 5 US dollars, representing coins and silver bars, and to fix the maximum emission (no more than 50 pesos per capita in view tickets and commitments) and the minimum legal reserve (25% of which 4 /5 in gold and currencies and 1/5 in silver), the other to specify the central bank figure of the Bank of Mexico (which had ceased all private banking activities since 1932) and to regulate credit. On 1 September 1936 the silver coins were put back into circulation.

As of November 30, 1937, notes in circulation amounted to 288 million and as of August 31, the gold reserve was 51 million.

Navy. – New units: Gunboats: 2 (DurangoZacatecas) built in 1934-35 in Spain, of 1600 t. and 19 knots, armed with 2/102 and various anti-aircraft weapons, capable of carrying 500 men and 80 quadrupeds; 3 (PotosíQuerétaroGuanajuato) built in 1934-35 in Spain, from 1300 t. and 19 knots. armed with 3/102 and various anti-aircraft weapons, capable of carrying 250 men and 20 quadrupeds.

Coast Guard Cutter: 10 (G. 20- G. 29) built in 1934-36 in Spain, of 160 t. and 26 knots, armed with 2/25 anti-aircraft and 4 machine gunners.

Merchant Navy. The merchant navy was constituted as of June 30, 1937 by 54 ships per ton. 41,371, mainly steam. Cabotage is reserved for the flag, but has been opened, on a temporary basis, by foreign shipping due to the shortage of domestic ships.

Mexico in the 1930's 2

Mexico in the 1930’s

Mexico in the 1930’s

With the assumption of General Lázaro Cárdenas as President of the Republic on 30 November 1934, the United States of Mexico entered a new phase of its history. And this is because even though the Cárdenas came to power as an exponent of the national revolutionary party, behind which was General Plutarco Elías Calles (who was president of the republic from 1924 to 1928 and the arbiter of Mexican political life from 1928 to 1934, during the provisional presidencies of Emilio Portes Gil, P. Ortiz Rubio and Abelardo Rodríguez), he then definitively cut off the system of political corruption and personal favoritism that Calles had set up; and consequently began a policy that in its essential lines detaches itself from the easy opportunism that Calles, especially in recent years, he had preferred. And it is particularly interesting to note that this upheaval took place within the framework of the old political organization, within the program of the national revolutionary party itself. Especially the Cárdenas brought forward the realization of the Plan Sexennal del Partido Nacional Revolucionario according to the lines conceived prior to his rise to power, as the six-year plan constituted the social economic program of the aforementioned party for the presidential legislation from 1934 to 1940, which was to aim at the realization of the ” grandeza económica de Mexico bajo el amparo de la justicia social “.

The ideology of this party is clearly characterized in its outward features by its kinship with an approximate and second-hand Marxist preaching (which explains the reddening attitudes of Mexican politics in recent years) while in practice it pursues a policy of strict national regeneration, to strongly nationalist and autarchic tints. This party has an important function in the life of the Mexican state, since, at present, Mexico stands by its constitutional physiognomy within the framework of one-party states, and, in short, the position of the Mexican national revolutionary party is configured the same. for his attributions to that of the National Fascist Party in Italy and the National Socialist Party in Germany.

The Cárdenas before his election, in accordance with the directives of the party, advocated the promotion of nationalism, political democracy, agrarian reform, popular education and the limitation of the powers of the Church. During the administration of the Cárdenas these trends did not remain a dead letter and led to quite radical transformations of Mexican economic and social life, so much so that they characterize the current position of Mexican politics and its development tendencies quite precisely.

The sector in which the Cárdenas acted most decisively and in which he brought the greatest changes was the agricultural sector, with the continuation of the agrarian reform.

Which finds its legislative basis in the constitution of 1917, which contains precise provisions for the division of the large estates into small properties of the direct farmer or for the establishment of ejidos, that is, of the collective properties of the village. By the end of 1934, 8,197,023 hectares of land had been distributed to peasant communities and 806,058 heads of families had benefited from it. At that time it was estimated that 1,200,000 rural household heads still had to benefit from the provision of the law, so that what had been done appeared very little to what remained to be done. Consequently, according to the party’s electoral promises, the Cárdenas continued the agrarian reform, instead of the system of direct distribution of the land to the peasants, it followed the system of the ejido, which differs substantially from that of small properties. In fact the title of ownership of the ejido it does not belong to the farmer household but to the village on which he depends and the land is inalienable. The fertile portion of the village’s land is divided into small, roughly equal plots, which are allotted to all the working agricultural household heads, who are called the ejidatarios. L ‘ ejidatario he has the right to keep his lot during his natural life and to pass it on to the heirs upon his death, but he loses all rights to it when he abandons its cultivation for two consecutive years. He has no right to take out mortgages or to transfer possession of them in any way. Between 1935 and 1936 6,334,266 hectares of land were distributed to 412,798 heads of households, that is, in two years the Cárdenas regime distributed three quarters of land than had been distributed in twenty years by previous governments. Parallel to this work of social transformation (which continued to a greater extent in 1937) the government undertook the construction of large public land reclamation works, especially for the diffusion of irrigation systems: in fact, in recent years 37 artificial lakes, including the large El Palmito dam, for the irrigation of 250,000 hectares of grain land. And in order to facilitate the successful implementation of the great reform undertaken, the government has stimulated the formation of agricultural production and consumption cooperatives and has helped the formation of an adequate agricultural credit system. The Agricultural Credit Bank, which has been transformed within the lines of the new social trends, and the National Credit Bank of ejidos, which due to its complex organization should be able to fulfill the function of anticipating the necessary means of sustenance to the ejidatarios before the harvest.

In the other sectors of the economy, the government of Cárdenas favors the formation of a state socialism. It has created the necessary legislative bases for this purpose.

For example, the law on expropriations that went back to 1857 was radically changed; with the law of 23 November 1936 instead of talking about the reason of “public necessity” for the justification of expropriation, a much broader formula was adopted which recognizes the reason for expropriation in the consideration of the reason for “public and social welfare”. It was under the provisions of this new law that on 23 June 1937 a presidential decree ordered the nationalization of the railways. And, again in June 1937, another presidential decree laid the foundations for government regulation of the production, distribution and sale of agricultural and industrial products.

But the meeting point of the social and nationalist political needs of the Cárdenas regime can be seen in its attitude towards foreign oil companies. The nationalization of oil mines is provided for by art. 27 of the 1917 constitution, but the realization of this cornerstone of the fundamental law of the state has been postponed due to the pressure of the foreign states concerned, in particular that of the United States. And it was precisely as a result of the pressure of the United States ambassador that a law of 1925, which, in order to get closer to the implementation of that postulate, set the limit of 50 years on oil concessions, was repealed by a law of Calles of 1928. In the November 1937 some facilities of the Cárdenas to the Mexican Eagle Company presumed a more liberal orientation of his government towards foreign oil companies, and indeed on that occasion the Cárdenas declared that he would use the higher revenues from the oil concessions for the rapid implementation of the national economic reconstruction program. Therefore, the news arrived rather unexpectedly that with a measure of March 19, 1938, the Cárdenas had decided to expropriate the companies that owned oil fields.

The reason for the expropriation was considered the refusal of the oil companies to submit to the decisions of the Junta de Conciliación y de Arbitrage which, regarding a dispute between the employees of this industry and the concessionary companies, had issued a sentence that condemned the companies to pay the arrears., to adopt a 40-hour weekly schedule and other provisions in favor of workers. The expropriation decree establishes the companies’ right to compensation which will be paid to them in 10 years.

Mexico in the 1930's

Central America Business

Central America Business

The level of economic development in the individual countries is very different. The Caribbean island states achieve the highest incomes: With a gross national income (GNI) per capita of US $ 21,310 (2015), the Bahamas are at the forefront thanks to lively tourism and internationally networked financial services. With a GNI of (2015) US $ 12,050 per inhabitant, Panama is at the top of the Central American countries. In contrast, Haiti, with a GNI per capita of US $ 880, is not only one of the poorest countries in Central America, but also in the world.

Tropical agriculture with the cultivation of sugar cane, bananas, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, pineapples, sisalagaves, cotton, spices and citrus fruits is still the main livelihood of the population in some states in Central America and West India (including Haiti, Nicaragua). It is largely determined by the plantation economy, which dates back to the colonial era and which in some cases expanded in the 20th century. Coffee is an important export item for almost all Central American countries. Bananas are mainly grown in Mexico, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Honduras. After the Second World War, Cuba lost its leading role in the cultivation of sugar cane; Although it has one of the largest cultivation areas in the world, its production share is only a few percent today. Shrimp and others

The main mineral resources are crude oil (Mexico, Trinidad), iron, copper, manganese ores (Cuba, Mexico) and bauxite (Jamaica, Hispaniola). The largest silver deposits in Central America are in Mexico, which is the world’s number one in terms of silver production (2014: 5,766 t).

The degree of industrialization varies greatly from country to country: industry, including mining, contributed around a quarter of GDP on average; in Mexico it was 32.7% (2015). The country has a differentiated and highly developed industrial structure and, due to its size, has a special economic position. Mexico is part of the North American Freetrade Agreement [NAFTA], which came into force in 1994. Trinidad and Tobago also plays a special role (44.0% of GDP is generated in the secondary sector) with its significant oil production and processing. On the West Indies, which are dominated by the service sector (e.g. Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia), less than 15% of GDP is generated in the manufacturing sector.

According to COUNTRYAAH.COM, the most important trading partners of almost all countries in Central America are still the USA and the EU; These two economic areas account for over two thirds of total foreign trade. Trade with China is also gaining importance in this region of the world. Trade between the states of Central America is to be strengthened or liberalized through various cooperation agreements. B. Caribbean Community, Latin American Economic System, CAFTA (Central America Free Trade Agreement). The economic objectives of these agreements have so far only partially been achieved. Tourism is of growing importance, especially in the area of ​​the West Indies in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Jamaica and Barbados as well as in Mexico.

Transport: Mexico has the longest rail network in Central America (approx. 26,700 km). The road network has been greatly expanded since the early 1960s, but it is still very sketchy. The most important connections are sections of the Panamerican Highway in north-south direction. The Panama Canal is of crucial importance for international maritime traffic between the Atlantic and Pacific. The majority of the tonnage of the merchant fleets is therefore attributable to Panama, which, however, is one of the countries with the flags of convenience due to its open shipping register and thus occupies a special position.

Central America Business


The oldest evidence of settlement in Central America (Paleo-Indian period) comes from the Mexican site of Tlapacoya (around 20,000 BC). During this time, the South American area ( America). From about 7,300 BC. The cultivation of cultivated plants can be proven. In the archaic period (8,000–2,500 BC) it can be seen as early as 7,300 BC. Chr. In Oaxaca the cultivation of pumpkins, from 6 500 the cultivation of chillies and avocados prove. The cultivation of maize was particularly important (from 3,500 BC, in the valley of Tehuacán, possibly even earlier). Dating problems arise from the fact that wild forms are difficult to distinguish from cultivated forms. At the same time, the first permanent settlements were formed. The first clay vessels date from around 2,500 BC. BC (Mexico, a little later Belize). From 2,000 B.C. High cultural developments can be observed in Central America, beginning with the Olmecs ( Mesoamerican high cultures ).

History: ( Latin America ).

Central America: state structure (2015)
Country Form of government Area (in km 2 ) Ew. (in 1,000) capital city
Antigua and Barbuda Monarchy 1) 440 91.8 Saint John’s
Bahamas Monarchy 1) 13 880 388.0 Nassau
Barbados Monarchy 1) 430 284.2 Bridgetown
Belize Monarchy 1) 22 970 359.3 Belmopan
Costa Rica republic 51 100 4,807.8 San Jose
Dominica republic 750 72.7 Roseau
Dominican. republic republic 48 670 10 528.4 Santo Domingo
El Salvador republic 21 040 6 126.6 San Salvador
Grenada Monarchy 1) 340 106.8 Saint George’s
Guatemala republic 108 890 16,342.9 Guatemala
Haiti republic 27 750 10 711.1 Port-au-Prince
Honduras republic 112 490 8 075.1 Tegucigalpa
Jamaica Monarchy 1) 10 990 2,725.9 Kingston
Cuba republic 109 890 11 389.6 Havana
Mexico republic 1 964 380 127 017.2 Mexico
Nicaragua republic 130 370 6,082.0 Managua
Panama republic 75 420 3,929.1 Panama
Saint Kitts and Nevis Monarchy 1) 2350 55.6 Basseterre
Saint Lucia Monarchy 1) 620 185.0 Castries
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Monarchy 1) 390 109.5 Kingstown
Trinidad and Tobago republic 5 130 1,360.1 Port of Spain
1) Parliamentary monarchy.

Colonial History of North America

Colonial History of North America

North America borders the Arctic Ocean in the north (latitude 83 ° 07 ′ north, northernmost point of Canada on Ellesmere Island; northernmost point Greenland: latitude 83 ° 39 ′ north), in the east it is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. A physical-geographic southern border of North America is often drawn in the area of the isthmus of Tehuantepec, i.e. within Mexico, but culturally Mexico belongs to Latin America. Excluding Mexico, the southernmost point of North America is the southern tip of Florida (25 ° 07 ′north latitude). The distance between the northernmost point on Ellesmere Island and the border with Mexico is around 6,500 km, the east-west extension about the latitude of the island of Newfoundland around 5,500 km as the crow flies. North America has a share of eight time zones.


In addition to Spain, which had initially brought Florida, Mexico and the southwest into its possession, there were mainly Great Britain (including New England) and France (Louisiana) as well as initially the Netherlands (New Netherlands), Sweden (New Sweden) and partly Russia (Alaska) involved in colonization; according to COUNTRYAAH.COM, this had a profound effect on the North American indigenous people. The Indians, involved in colonial rivalries (especially in the Anglo-French struggles in which they took part on both sides), were increasingly displaced from their territories and decimated by wars. On the other hand, the civilizing effect of the European settlement receded strongly (mission attempts, trade, taking over the horse from the Spaniards). From the beginning, the Indians resisted land grabbing and disenfranchisement.

In the 18th century, the dominant position of the British colonies on the east coast, which gradually reached as far as the Appalachians, was secured against the Spanish possessions in the south with the takeover of the two Carolinas (1720/29) and the establishment of Georgia (1732/33) as a defensive border colony. Three regions emerged: 1) New England with its almost entirely English population living in townships (Town) settled, was strongly oriented towards trade and industry and had a high level of education; 2) the Central Atlantic colonies with a strong Dutch-German and Irish-Scottish population, large and medium-sized agricultural holdings and also considerable trade interests; 3) the colonies stretching south from Maryland, in which plantation ownership and monocultures (tobacco, rice, cotton, indigo) predominated and slavery added a strong non-English element to the population.

Although consistently dependent on the British crown or owners (Maryland, Pennsylvania) and thus subject to the central government (Board of Trade) policy aimed at the benefit of the motherland, all colonies achieved a high degree of self-government, with the chambers of representatives of the colonial parliaments becoming increasingly self-confident expanded their position in the political system analogous to that of the British House of Commons. The residents developed an American sense of togetherness; but in 1754 a union of the colonies failed at the Albany Congress. British-French battles over the Ohio Valley triggered the “French and Indian War” (1754–63), which culminated in the conflict of the Seven Years’ War.

Tensions arose from the efforts of the motherland to keep the colonies dependent as suppliers of raw materials and markets for finished goods, but to use them for the defense and administrative burdens (State Revenue Law “Sugar Act”, 1764; stamp duty, 1765; Townshend Acts, 1767 ; Zwangsgesetze, 1774) and their expansion west of the Alleghenies not to be allowed for the time being. Since the colonies had reached a certain maturity in terms of social development, the French threat, if not that of the Indians (“Pontiacs Rebellion”, 1763–66), had ceased in 1763 and provocations on both sides were inevitable (customs policy, Boston Tea Party), the constitutional dispute over the right to tax (“no taxation without representation”) soon led to the independence movement.

The further development of North America was due to the establishment and rapid expansion of the United States of America at the expense of British (1783, Northwest Territory), French (1803 purchase of Louisiana ) and Spanish (1819, Florida), through the establishment of territorial claims in the far Northwest (Oregon) and Winning in the Southwest (1845–48, Mexican War, Texas ; 1853 Gadsden Treaty). The Russian interests (Alaska, seal fishing, East Asia trade) were contractually agreed in 1824 on the northwest coast north of 54 ° 40 ′limited and ended in 1867 with the sale of Alaska to the United States. The rival advance of Canadian and American settlers to the west made it necessary to define borders several times (1818, 1846). In the north of the USA, Canada developed into an independent nation based on the English and French population, which, despite the economic and cultural attraction of the USA, remained part of the Commonwealth.

History of North America

Galapagos Islands Part IV

Galapagos Islands Part IV

Isla Lobo (Sea Lion Island)

Lobo means wolf, which refers to the many sea lions that are here (lobos marinos = sea wolves). In addition, a lot of bird life to watch and a little mangroves. It’s a great place to get some great photos of sea lion cubs. In addition, you can snorkel behind the small island, towards the mainland. Here one can be lucky to see many turtles.

Espanola Island

Espanola (Hood Island)

Punta Suarez is considered to be the most all-round representative location in relation to the islands’ distinctive wildlife. Rocks, sandy and pebble beaches form the habitat of the legendary Albatross, which nests in the period from April to December, land and sea iguanas, the endemic Hood mockingbird, Galapagos hawk, Galapagos pigeon, Blue-footed sole, Nazcasule, sea lion colonies and sea turtles. Dry landing in the rubber boats on the rocks by the lighthouse, where we may already be called by sea lions sunbathing on the rocks. On the cliffs, we usually also manage to greet the first scattered smaller colonies of sea iguanas and busy ghost crabs. Exciting longer and a little more physically demanding hike, primarily along the spectacular low and higher rocky coast of “nature trail” with sometimes very uneven ground of larger volcanic rock pieces (here you must not be difficult to walk). Here is rich with the aforementioned classic Galapagos animals on land and at sea and in the air.

On the east side of the island is Gardner Bay, where we with the rubber boats call at the beautiful chalk-white sandy beach, where crowds of sea turtles lay their eggs at night, and are home to a larger sea lion colony, which you can get very close to, as they have a reputation for be the visitors very kindly voted just on this beach. It is often possible to meet the sea lions in the water from the beach on a swim or snorkel trip. The underwater experience is amazing, both on one side and the other side of Turtle Rock, which is a good swim (with fins) off the beach. The farthest part requires 10 minutes for a good swimmer, and here the water is deepest and also most turbulent. On the deeper water there is a good opportunity to snorkel with reef sharks, devil rays (manta) and sometimes you are lucky to experience sea turtles up close.

Punta Suarez Island

This is one of the best places on the Galapagos to see bird life and beautiful scenery. Dry landing in Punta Suarez, with absolutely amazing bird life and many very beautiful sea iguanas. This is where the most colorful sea iguanas are found… and the largest – probably because you are closest to the cold nutrient-rich ocean currents that bring plenty of food (algae). And that is probably also why bird and animal life is rich here.

You see lots of gannets, tropical birds and of course Waved Albatross (the world’s only breeding place and it can only be seen in the period June-December)

Gardner Bay
One of the most beautiful beaches in the Galapagos and with good opportunities for sunbathing, snorkeling for example from the rubber boats at Isla Tortuga (Turtle island) or simply enjoy the many sea lions that fling on the beach or at the water’s edge.

Floreana Island

This island is typically programmatically related to Española and belongs to the southern islands. Floreana is inhabited as one of the few Galapagos Islands.

Post Office Bay , has a historical significance, as whalers in the 18th century established a barrel for mail, where the idea was that the letters should be brought to their destination by other sailors. Today, the barrel is used primarily by aspiring tourists, primarily as a fun historical gimmick. Incidentally, the bay was also the landing site for some of the first settlers on the island, who primarily settled here, as there was a lot of lush and more food than on many of the other islands in the group.

By Punta Cormorant, there is wet landing and warm welcome from the island’s charming and often noisy welcome committee, the resident sea lion colony. Depending on the alpha male’s mood and the number of tiny pups, one can often get pretty close to these magnificent animals and get the most amazing close-up pictures (under the expert guidance of the guide so we do not get too close). From here easy hike on marked trail towards the lagoon, beautifully sandwiched inside between volcanic craters. The lagoon is the habitat and breeding ground for the archipelago’s largest concentration of flamingos and also for many of the islands’ other distinctive waders. One is surprised by the richer plant life, which is a great contrast to the other relatively barren islands. Back on the beach, ghost crabs dart around and the certainty of the many sea turtles that lay their eggs in the fine white coral sand at night bodes well for the snorkeling adventure at Devil’s Crown . Snorkeling here is approaching world class, as we very often encounter shoals of eagle rays (both spotted and golden), sea lions (often with cubs), moray eels, of course sea turtles and occasionally hammerhead sharks. This is in addition to the beautiful corals and “ordinary” colorful fish life, which includes fish, scorpionfish and Galapagos groupers (Bacalao), which are on the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species, just to name a few.

Floreana Island

Galapagos Islands Part III

Galapagos Islands Part III

South Plaza Island

Exciting and closest possible uninhabited island on a day cruise from Puerto Ayora. Plazas are important on eg island hopping trip, primarily due to the land iguanas. The landscape is beautiful with its reddish low vegetation, broken by the large Opuntia cacti. Here is a large sea lion colony that calls us already at the landing site, and the dramatic southeastern rock wall is a nesting place / habitat for all sorts of exciting seabirds with Nazca sole, blue-footed sole, swallowtail gull, and large colony of tropical scraps (shearwater in English), which drones past. There is a fantastic dramatic view to the south, keep an eye out for shoals of large yellow mullets in the surface, and possibly. passing “torpedoes” (tuna and the like), sharks, turtles.

Santa Fe Island

One of the smaller islands located on the southeast side of Santa Cruz. Again one of the denser uninhabited islands, which can also be made on day cruises from Puerto Ayora. Wet landing from the rubber boats on the beautiful beach with chalk-white coral sand, and the noisy sea lion colony form the welcome committee. From here along the marked path into the country and down to the beach on the other side, where there are again many sea lions. One may be lucky to see (harmless) snakes and Galapagos gulls on the hike. Typically, snorkeling from the yacht or inflatable boats is arranged along the cliffs with sea lions and myriads of fish and often eagle rays. If you enter in the middle of the bay, there is a great chance of encountering turtles and reef sharks.

San Cristobal Island

San Cristobal
This is a larger island, furthest to the east, and thus also (according to geology) the oldest (about 4 million years).
Here is Baquerizo Moreno, the capital and the second most important port city, which is also the hub for many multi-day cruises. However, everything is on a pleasantly small scale and with a very charming waterfront and promenade, where all viewing benches are usually occupied on a 24-hour basis by the local… ..sea lions, who hold a long siesta with the most beautiful views. There are just over 5,000 inhabitants, and there is also an airport with connections to Quito and Guayaquil, but there are not always daily departures to Quito. It can be a great solution to fly out to either Baltra or San Cristobal and home from the other island, whether you are expanding your cruise with nights ashore, or are on an exciting island trip. There is an interesting museum / knowledge center within walking distance of the city with excellent posters that tell about the place’s spectacular geology, biology, history, etc. You can snorkel from land,Leon Dormido and Islas Lobos, hiking in the highlands and visits to exciting land turtle project that is somewhat less visited than the pendants on Santa Cruz.

Leon Dormido – Kicker Rock and Islas Lobos
This majestic towering “sleeping sea lion” rock is located a few miles off the coast of San Cristobal, and it is not difficult to guess why it got this name. The cliff is divided in two, and allows for one of the most adrenaline-pumping and fantastic underwater adventures on the islands, namely snorkeling downstream through this natural underwater gorge. It requires really good nerves and swimming / snoring skills, as the boat sails around on the other side and picks up when you are slightly shaken through something. Close contact with eagle rays of half garage door size, many reef sharks, occasionally Galapagos shark (this looks like a real shark, as opposed to the small reef sharks) and hammerhead sharks, as well as sea turtles, just to name the larger species. Eden yacht is licensed for this snorkeling trip as one of the very few yachts that sail the longer cruises. The sister boat Aida Maria does not have, but instead has Lobos Island, which is much easier snorkeling and often the opportunity to snorkel with sea lion females and their young. With extra nights at San Cristobal, a combined snorkeling trip to both of these locations can be purchased. Galapagosh whales are often spotted on their way to the cozy port city of Puerto Baquerizo. Along the coast on the last nautical mile you have large colonies of especially frigatebirds and blue-footed gannets in the binoculars, which lie in nests on the rock walls.

North Seymour Island

This small island is located just north of Baltra and the airport and thus also close to Santa Cruz Island. It has a rich bird life, and especially frigatebirds breed here, and it is the best place in the Galapagos to see male frigatebirds with inflated larynx trying to attract females. In addition, it is an excellent place to see beautiful land iguanas, lots of sea lions, blue-footed gannets and sea iguanas. In the water you can snorkel (if it has not been banned), but it is also a place with current, and then there is a good opportunity to see sharks from the ship. This is a “dry landing”, which can be problematic with swells, etc. In the photo you can see how such a landing takes place in calm weather.

North Seymour Island

Galapagos Islands Part II

Galapagos Islands Part II

Santa Cruz Island (main island in the center)

On Santa Cruz Island is the largest city of Puerto Ayora with 15,000 inhabitants, where also the Darwin Institute is located. The city is the administrative hub of the islands, and is also the primary logistics center for most of the tourism that takes place in the Galapagos. Both day trips to the more nearby uninhabited islands, exciting excursions by land and water at Santa Cruz, as well as cruises often depart from here. There is an excellent paved country road from north to south, which connects the airport at Baltra with Puerto Ayora in the south. There is a reasonably developed agriculture in the lush northern highlands in the zones that are not national park.

Puerto Ayora
The city is divided into two – the tourists’ waterfront and the streets behind and the whole local part that comes in the other blocks further inland. Restaurant and accommodation prices decrease proportionally the more blocks you travel in the city from the waterfront. A cozy, simple and cheap meal from the grill on an inverted beer crate is an option in the more local part, and somewhat more reminiscent of the continent the islands are in, than the very fashionable waterfront. It can be a fun contrast for many to experience the difference. Despite the perpetual urban development, however, it is still possible to see sea lions, sea iguanas and lots of bird life around the harbor. In the water you can be lucky to see sea turtles, rays and sharks, and there is excellent snorkeling a quarter of an hour walk from the center (The pier and the supermarket, El Malecon). There is a small fish market with rapid trade in the morning and morning hours, where a swarm of pelicans hopeful is ready to take away the sad remnants of those trades. Here are cafes with wifi, internet cafes, bars, restaurants and hotels in all price ranges, lots of souvenir shops and jewelry stores. The city is an excellent and a natural stop on an island hopping, as there are a wealth of exciting excursion destinations both on land and at sea. There are also a number of 1-day cruises to uninhabited islands, such as Plazas, Bartoleme and Seymour. The city is also included on the many multi-day cruises, either as a starting or ending point, or in the middle of a longer sailing schedule, as passengers must be collected / delivered and stocked up.

Darwin Institute
This is definitely worth a visit as it is the islands’ scientific and conservation command center where biologists, scientists and volunteers from all over the world work at high pressure. We are introduced to everything from Charles Darwin’s theories to the great ongoing conservation work that is taking place on the islands. The extensive Visitor Center especially offers exciting land turtle rehabilitation projects where there are endemic species from specific islands. Galapagos turtles can grow up to 200 years old (some scientists even reckon they can grow even older). Unfortunately, the star above them all, Lonesome George, passed away in 2012. He was from the island of Pinta, and was known as one of this world’s rarest species. As a curiosity, he can now be seen in a stuffed state at the institute, after the specialists at the New York Museum of Natural History,

The turtle projects in the northern highlands
Great opportunity to experience these magnificent and unique animals in more natural surroundings than at the Darwin Institute. There is always at least 1 in 2 rehabilitation projects open to tourists, and you get the opportunity to get reasonably close to the turtles, but not as close as, for example, Prison Island on Zanzibar, where there are no rules for the animals. It is a fantastic experience and an opportunity to follow an incredibly important conservation project of these rare species, and should not be confused with a raw nature experience in the animals’ natural and undisturbed habitat. The trip to the turtles in the highlands goes through the cultivated part of the Galapagos, with fairly dense populations and their livestock. Many fruits, meat, milk, etc. today come from the islands themselves and are not imported.

The twins / Los gemelos
These are 2 huge depressions in the highlands along the road to Baltra, probably formed by gas leaking from a depot below, so that the area above has collapsed. It is very beautiful nature in the green lush highlands, and interesting bird life, where you bla. Can experience the red flycatcher, the short-eared owl and the Galapagos hawk. There is a hiking opportunity of 1.5 km. path system around the craters.

Bachas Beach
This beautiful natural beach, which with its fine white coral sand forms a nice nesting place for sea turtles, is often our first encounter with the islands’ magnificent natural and exceptional wildlife when embarking on a multi-day cruise directly from the airport at Baltra. There is wet landing from the rubber boats directly on the beach, and then the adventure is shot well and thoroughly. In the lagoon behind the beach there is often a good opportunity to see flamingos and other coastal and wading birds. However, bird life and specific species are seasonal. There are a multitude of pelicans, and you can often be lucky to spot reef sharks very close to land, just as you often come across the sea iguana and the blue-footed sole, both of which must be categorized as “must see” on the islands.

Black Turtle Cove
An absolute highlight of a multi-day cruise. This naturally protected bay, which is closed to visitors from the land side, is already a scenic chapter in itself. Beautifully framed by vast mangrove forest in shades of red, white and black, this adventurous lagoon reveals itself with crystal clear water. Already from the rubber boats, spotted eagle rays, white-tipped reef sharks and sea turtles are spotted, and snorkeling is a chapter in itself. The word world class could come into play in relation to the close experience with these larger sea creatures.

Cerro Dragon
Exciting national park area named after the land iguanas, which can also only be experienced from a multi-day cruise. Once again, fantastic experiences await with dramatic landscapes and distinctive wildlife, such as the very distinctive land iguanas that can only be experienced in quite a few places in the archipelago. The current presence of iguanas can only be attributed to a fantastic piece of conservation work, as virtually all iguanas had been exterminated by ownerless dogs in the area in the late eighties. In 1990, it was decided to remove the dogs, and since then the population has grown. From the beach, follow the 2 km trail system that brings us to the iguanas, via a beautiful saltwater lagoon that forms the seasonal habitat for flocks of flamingos and other waders. We also encounter the endemic Candelabra and Oppuntia cactus along the way on our hike

Santa Cruz Island

Galapagos Islands Part I

Galapagos Islands Part I

The Galapagos Islands are some very adventurous islands, located almost 1,000 km west of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean. The islands hide an incomprehensible and fascinating wildlife that can be hard to imagine existing on this earth.

The islands consist of 16 larger and 10 smaller islands scattered across the equator. In total, the area of ​​the islands corresponds to 7990 km2, and there are only 25,100 inhabitants. The islands are between 0.7 and 4 million years old and consist almost entirely of volcanoes. Take Tourist Travel to the Galapagos Islands and have an experience of a lifetime.

Darwin and the islands

The islands were discovered way back in 1535. At that time there was no trace of prehistoric habitation. Subsequently, the islands were for several years a base for whalers and pirates until 1835, when Charles Darwin came to the Galapagos Islands.

On the islands, Charles Darwin discovered the amazing wildlife, and this has played an incredibly important role in his theory of the origin of species. Among other things, he experienced how to get really close to the animals, without fear of man.

The Galapagos Islands are a UNESCO World Heritage Site of unique global value. Therefore, it is also only on 5 of the islands that there is habitation today.

Wonderful wildlife

Unique is exactly what one might call the Galapagos Islands. They have a very special wildlife that can only be experienced here. 95% of the reptile species as well as 49% of the terrestrial bird species can only be found in the Galapagos Islands.

Some of the amazing animals you can experience are giant turtles, sea lions, iguanas, penguins and even flamingos. Something even wilder about this is that many of the animals are not particularly afraid of humans, and you therefore get a unique opportunity to get really close to the animals.

It is not only on the surface where you can be surprised by the wonderful islands. Do you enjoy snorkeling or diving, you can experience a fascinating wildlife underwater. Here you can experience both dolphins and various sharks.

Volcanic islands

Since the islands are volcanic islands, there is not much plant growth. Nature consists mostly of cacti and scrub forests. Still, it is something very special to experience, and in fact, 51% of the flowering plants in the Galapagos Islands are found only here.

In addition, several of the volcanoes on the islands are still active. Therefore, you may even be lucky enough to experience the absolutely fascinating sight of an active volcano. The islands are very different, which you will experience with a trip to the Galapagos Islands.

The ecosystem itself on the islands is very fragile. In fact, it is so fragile that you sometimes have to wash the sand off your feet from one of the islands before landing on a new island. This is to prevent the ecosystem and the very special life from being damaged. Join Tourist Travel on an adventure you will never forget.

In short and in general about the Galapagos:

  • Belongs to:Ecuador
  • Location:at Equator approx. 1,000 km off the coast of South America
  • Land area:8,000 km2 (approx. 1/5 of Denmark)
  • Population:20-30,000 (have small farms on the 3 main islands – many acquire through tourism)
  • Highest point:Wolf Volcano on Isabela Island, 1707 m
  • Climate:It is very dry all year round, and by the coast it is basically desert climate. In the highlands it can rain all year round,
    and here it is much far more lush than on the coasts.

There are two periods:

June-December: Cold weather and water, the water between 18-24 degrees and the air a little warmer. Can feel cold, but most of the time comfortable. It can blow more and some benefit greatly from seasickness pills along the way. But there is usually not really bad weather, as we know from Denmark with low pressure, etc.

Best time to visit the Galapagos:

This is a difficult question and it is probably best answered by saying that it is always exciting and beautiful to visit the Galapagos. If you want to swim / snorkel a lot, the warm time with the warm water (approx. 26-28 degrees) may be best, but you can just use a wetsuit otherwise.

If you want to see albatrosses breed, it MUST be in the “cold” time.

But otherwise here is life all year round.

It can get very hot in February / March.

Baltra Island

Baltra is an important logistical hub for most tourists visiting the Galapagos Islands . Here is the Ø group’s main airport, and a number of cruises start from the coast just 5-10 minutes away. Some cruises also start from the islands administrative center and main port, Puerto Ayora, located on the neighboring island of Santa Cruz. From the airport there is a free bus 5-10 min. To the Itabaca Canal, from where people and luggage are sailed 2 min. By flat-bottomed ferry to Santa Cruz. Here you meet a driver associated with the yacht you board in Puerto Ayora or transfer to a hotel in the city. It’s about. 1 hour drive by fine country road.

Baltra Island

Weather in California

Weather in California

When vacationers think of the weather in California , an image of sunshine, blue sea and warm temperatures often emerges in their minds. But the state doesn’t have year-round sunshine and warm temperatures. Parts of California experience snowfall, while other regions only expect heavy rains during winter. The climate in the north and south differs significantly from the climatic conditions in Death Valley or the Sierra Nevada . Read here what weather awaits you in the California state.

What’s the weather like in Northern California?

What's the weather like in California

Using a climate table for Sacramento, I’ll show you the weather in northern California. This part of the state is part of the Mediterranean climate zone . While the summers are hot and with little rain, the winters in Sacramento are comparatively rainy and mild. The hottest months of the year are July and August with an average of 34 degrees Celsius. These are also the driest months with less than 1 day of rain per month. It gets coolest in December and January with maximum temperatures of 12 degrees Celsius and minimum temperatures of 3 degrees. The sunniest months are June and July with 14 hours of sunshine per day, closely followed by May and August with 13 hours of sunshine per day. Winter brings less sun with it. In December and January, holidaymakers can expect only 5 hours of sunshine per day, in November and February there are 7.

Climate diagram for Sacramento

Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature in ° C 12 16 18 22 27 31 34 34 31 26 17 12
Min. Temperature in ° C 3 5 6 8 10 13 15 14 13 10 6 3
Hours of sunshine per day 5 7 9 11 13 14 14 13 12 10 7 5
Rainy days per month 7 7 7 4 1 1 0 0 1 3 6 7
Precipitation in mm 98 71 65 32 8 3 1 2 9 26 68 65

What is the weather like in southern California?

What's the weather like in California

Representing the weather in southern California, I provide you with a climate diagram for San Diego . During the summer months you will spend your California vacation in pleasant temperatures. The warmest months are July, August and September with maximum values ​​of 25 degrees Celsius. Even at night it is still 19 to 20 degrees Celsius. In winter, the maximum values ​​deviate from the minimum values ​​by up to 10 degrees Celsius. If you’re traveling to San Diego in winter, pack overcoat clothes to avoid freezing in the evening. It gets coldest in January and December with minimum temperatures of 9 degrees Celsius. The most sunshine awaits travelers in July and August. January and December bring the fewest hours of sunshine with 7 hours per day.

According to, the water temperatures of the Pacific in San Diego only reach 21 degrees in August – this is the comfortable temperature for bathing in the sea. Otherwise, the values ​​of the Pacific Ocean move between 15 and 20 degrees Celsius. Therefore, jumping into the water is only recommended for insensitive vacationers. It rains little year round in San Diego. The maximum value is 6 rainy days in February and March. Between June and September it does not rain on an average of any day of the month in the Californian metropolis.

Climate diagram for San Diego

Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature in ° C 19 19 19 20 21 22 25 25 25 24 21 19
Min. Temperature in ° C 9 10 12 13 15 17 19 20 19 16 12 9
Hours of sunshine per day 7 8 8 9 8 8 10 10 8 8 8 7
Rainy days per month 5 6 6 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 3 4
Precipitation in mm 48 33 46 21 6 2 1 4 7 9 38 42

How’s the weather in Death Valley?

The highest temperatures in the whole country await you in Death Valley . The hottest measured value was reached in 1913 and was 56.7 degrees Celsius. In summer the thermometer climbs to over 40 degrees Celsius. The hottest month is July with an average of 46 degrees Celsius. In winter the values ​​are between 16 degrees in December and 21 degrees Celsius in February. At night, temperatures drop to 1 to 4 degrees. It can happen that the values ​​in Death Valley are below 0 degrees Celsius during the cold season. June, July and August bring the most hours of sunshine with itself – 13 in number. The sun shines the least in December with 5 hours a day. In Death Valley there is little rainfall all year round. The maximum value is 3 rainy days per month. May and June are the driest.

Climate diagram for Death Valley

Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature in ° C 18 21 25 30 35 41 46 44 40 31 22 16
Min. Temperature in ° C 1 4 7 10 16 21 25 23 19 12 6 1
Hours of sunshine per day 6 6 9 10 11 13 13 13 11 9 7 5
Rainy days per month 3 3 3 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 2 3
Precipitation in mm 18 20 14 6 4 2 9 9 7 4 13 13

How is the weather in the Sierra Nevada?

The climatic conditions in the Sierra Nevada are very different. At 4,421 meters, the Sierra Nevada is not only the highest mountain range in the USA but also the longest. There is an arctic climate at the heights of the mountain range . In winter it is very cold and there is heavy snowfall. The western and eastern parts of the Sierra Nevada are subject to different climatic conditions. The west is influenced by a maritime climate . Both summers and winters are mild in this region. In contrast, the seasons in the east are clearly pronounced. This part of the Sierra Nevada has a desert climate certainly. The summers are hot there and the winters are cool. The amount of precipitation also varies from area to area. In general, one can say that the high altitudes are more affected by precipitation than the valley regions of the Sierra Nevada. But there is less precipitation in the south than in the north. So it happens that mountains in the south are higher than in the north, but it still rains less there.


Climate in the Dominican Republic

Climate in the Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic is located on the Hispaniola peninsula. The south coast borders the Caribbean Sea, the north coast lies on the Atlantic Ocean. The capital is Santo Domingo in the south. The climate in the Dominican Republic is tropical . This means that the temperature fluctuations are small over the course of the year. The average temperatures are around 25 degrees Celsius. However, there are regional differences between the south, the north and the higher altitudes. Since the southern part is on the Caribbean Sea, it is hotter and drier there than in the north. The temperatures in the north are similar to those in the south, although it is slightly cooler in winter. Furthermore, there is higher humidity and more humid weather in the north, as the south is in the rain shadow of the Cordillera Central mountain range. In the higher elevations, such as in the city of Costanza, the average temperatures are around 18 degrees Celsius below those in the south and north. At night it can cool down there to below ten degrees Celsius. Due to the tropical climate, there is a rainy season and a dry season in the Dominican Republic. The respective times differ depending on the region. In addition, the Dominican Republic is located in the catchment area of ​​tropical cyclones, the so-called hurricanes . In the following climate table you can see the weather conditions for the whole year in the capital Santo Domingo on the Caribbean Sea. Similar values ​​also apply to the region on the Atlantic.

Climate table for the Dominican Republic (Santo Domingo)

Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature in ° C 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 30 30
Min. Temperature in ° C 19 19 20 21 22 22 22 23 22 22 21 20
Hours of sunshine per day 6 6 7 7 6 6 6 7 7 6 6 6
Water temperature in ° C 27 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 27 27
Rainy days per month 7 6 6 7 11 12 11 11 11 11 10 8

The best time to travel to the Dominican Republic

The weather data shows the best travel time for the Dominican Republic for the months of December to April . During this time you can look forward to the best weather conditions for a wonderful beach holiday. In the Austrian winter time, the country is the perfect travel destination to escape the cold temperatures.


Best travel time to Dominican Republic in the monthly overview

  • December: 30 ° C, 6 hours of sunshine, 27 ° C water temperature, 8 rainy days, 79% humidity
  • January: 28 ° C, 6 hours of sunshine, 27 ° C water temperature, 7 rainy days, 78% humidity
  • February: 29 ° C, 6 hours of sunshine, 26 ° C water temperature, 6 rainy days, 73% humidity
  • March: 29 ° C, 7 hours of sunshine, 26 ° C water temperature, 6 rainy days, 75% humidity
  • April: 30 ° C, 7 hours of sunshine, 27 ° C water temperature, 7 rainy days, 76% humidity

During the whole year there are high summer temperatures in the Dominican Republic. However, the period from December to April is particularly popular as the weather is at its most beautiful during these months. With this optimal travel time you have to note that many tourists decide to go on vacation. That brings increased flight and hotel prices as well as full beaches. But also in the other months there are tropical temperatures in the Dominican Republic and it is worth taking a break. However, more rain showers can then occur. If you travel to the Dominican Republic outside of the prime season, the rainy season may be in some regions to rule. That doesn’t detract from your vacation. Because during the rainy season it does not rain permanently, but briefly and heavily. Then the sun shines again, the air is fresh and the vegetation is blooming. The humidity is higher, but those who can physically cope with these conditions do not make any compromises during this time. Important: June to November is hurricane season in the Caribbean and therefore also in the Dominican Republic. The highest chance of being hit by a hurricane is in September and October. However, tropical cyclones rarely occur on the island. Heavy rains, strong winds and storms are more common.

The most popular travel destinations in the Dominican Republic include Santo Domingo in the south, Punta Cana in the east and Puerto Plata in the north. You can now find out when the best time to visit these places is.

The best time to travel to Santo Domingo in the south

According to Insidewatch, the capital Santo Domingo is located in the southern part of the country on the Caribbean Sea. As mentioned, the south of the country is drier and hotter overall. This is especially true for the months of December to May . For this reason, these months are considered the best time to travel to Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic. The average temperatures over the course of the year are 30 degrees Celsius. At night, temperatures rarely drop below 20 degrees Celsius. The conditions are perfect for bathing in the sea, with an average water temperature of 27 degrees Celsius. The humidity is high at an average of 75% in the best travel time, but lower than in the other months. In the rainy season, it is significantly higher. The rainy season in the south takes place in the months from May to November. This time is generally not recommended as a travel time for Santo Domingo. Temperatures are climbing to their maximum, humidity is extreme and there is a risk of tropical cyclones . Anyone who can physically cope well with these weather conditions will also experience a wonderful beach holiday in the rainy season.

The best travel time for Punta Cana in the east

Punta Cana is the island’s absolute tourist destination. The place is on the east coast and the climate is similar to that in the south. The temperatures are tropical all year round and the water is always wonderfully warm. The average temperature is between 28 and 31 degrees Celsius. In the night of the summer months, temperatures are up to 24 degrees Celsius. Since the months December to April are the driest and with the fewest rainy days, they are considered the best time to visit Punta Cana . In the other months of May to October it rains more often, the humidity is extremely high and the temperatures are hot. The rainy season also characterizes the hurricane season in the Caribbean.

The best time to travel to Puerto Plata in the north

Puerto Plata is located on the north coast of the Dominican Republic. The climate and thus also the best travel time for Puerto Plata influences the Cordillera Central mountain range. Due to rising trade winds, which cool down at higher altitudes, it rains more frequently in the north than in the south. The temperatures in the north are generally a little cooler than in the south, but it is tropically warm all year round. The average temperature in Puerto Plata is 30 degrees Celsius. In the months of December to March, the temperatures are just below that. It is not as hot during this time as from April to November, but the number of rainy days is higher. The rainy season in the north is from November to January. On average there are twelve rainy days during these months. The fewest rainy days fall in the months of February , March and April . Due to this fact, these months are considered the best time to travel to Puerto Plata. You are in the generally best travel time for the Dominican Republic.

Anyone who loves a tropical climate all year round is in the right place in the Dominican Republic at any time. All year round, the daytime temperatures are around 30 degrees Celsius. Sometimes they are lower and sometimes they are higher. The same applies to the temperatures of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic. Because the rainy season prevails in most regions during the summer months, December , January , February , March and April are considered the best time to visit the Dominican Republic. In the north, the ideal travel time is shortened by a few months and is in February, March and April. If you have no problem with short and heavy rain showers on your vacation, the months in the rainy season are also suitable for traveling to the Dominican Republic. If you book your vacation in the rainy season, inform yourself beforehand about the risk of tropical cyclones.

Dominican Republic Attractions

Florida Climate

Florida Climate

Climate table for Florida

Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature in ° C 21 23 25 27 30 32 33 32 31 30 26 24
Min. Temperature in ° C 10 11 14 16 20 23 23 23 22 18 14 12
Hours of sunshine per day 7 7 9 10 10 9 8 8 7 7 6 6
Water temperature in ° C 21 20 21 23 25 27 28 29 28 26 24 22
Rainy days per month 5 6 5 3 5 10 13 14 10 5 4 5

The best time to travel to Florida

The sun shines all year round in the Sunshine State of Florida . In the summer months it is warmest with an average day temperature of 30 degrees Celsius, but the precipitation is highest in these months and there are strong gusts of wind. That’s why the best time to travel to Florida is from late November to mid-May . Average temperatures around 20 to 25 degrees and very little rainfall allow you to have a great Florida vacation in autumn, winter and spring . Depending on the climate zone, there are a few small differences in the average temperatures measured. Therefore, I will show you in the following using climate tables the best travel time for the north, the center and the south of Florida. Find out when a wonderful beach vacation in Miami Beach or the Florida Keys is best possible and when it makes sense to take a city trip to Orlando.

The best months to travel to Florida at a glance:

  • November: 26 ° C, 6 hours of sunshine, 24 ° C water temperature, 4 rainy days
  • December: 24 ° C, 6 hours of sunshine, 22 ° C water temperature, 5 rainy days
  • January: 21 ° C, 7 hours of sunshine, 21 ° C water temperature, 5 rainy days
  • February: 23 ° C, 7 hours of sunshine, 20 ° C water temperature, 6 rainy days
  • March: 25 ° C, 9 hours of sunshine, 21 ° C water temperature, 5 rainy days
  • April: 27 ° C, 10 hours of sunshine, 23 ° C water temperature, 3 rainy days
  • May: 30 ° C, 10h sun, 25 ° C water temperature, 5 rainy days

Climate in Northern Florida: Pensacola, Tallahassee, Jacksonville

Climate table for Jacksonville

Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature in ° C 18 20 23 27 30 32 33 33 31 27 23 19
Min. Temperature in ° C 6 7 10 14 18 21 23 23 20 15 10 7
Hours of sunshine per day 6 7 8 9 10 8 8 8 6 7 6 6
Water temperature in ° C 17 17 18 20 23 26 29 30 29 27 24 20
Rainy days per month 7 7 7 6 7 11 13 12 14 11 6 7

Best travel time for north Florida

According to healthvv, North Florida borders the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest and the Atlantic Ocean to the northeast. To the northwest are Pensacola and the capital of Florida, Tallahassee , among others . To the northeast is the most populous city, Jacksonville . Although it is warm throughout the year in the north, which is best time during the months of March to May. In spring it rains relatively little in the north and there are no hurricanes. Daytime temperatures around 23 to 30 degrees allow great trips. In the summer months of June, July, August and September, maximum temperatures of up to 33 degrees Celsius are reached in the north. With an average of twelve rainy days, precipitation is greatest in the summer months. In the winter months it is relatively warm in northern Florida. In the coldest month, January, maximum temperatures of 18 degrees are measured. At night it can get a bit chilly with an average of six to seven degrees.

Climate in central Florida: Orlando, Kissimmee

Climate table for Orlando

Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature in ° C 24 23 26 28 31 32 33 33 32 29 26 23
Min. Temperature in ° C 9 10 13 15 19 22 23 23 22 19 14 11
Hours of sunshine per day 6 7 8 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6
Water temperature in ° C / / / / / / / / / / / /
Rainy days per month 6 7 7 4 7 13 12 12 10 6 6 6

Best travel time for central Florida

Centrally located in the Sunshine State is the famous city of Orlando . It is particularly popular with tourists because of the world’s largest amusement park, Disney World, and Universal Studios. The best time to travel to Orlando are March, April, September and October. In spring and autumn you can spend a few relaxing days in central Florida. With an average of seven hours of sunshine per day and a temperature of 26 to 32 degrees Celsius, wonderful excursions with the whole family or city trips to neighboring cities are possible. At the best time to travel to central Florida, there is also relatively little rain. There is significantly more precipitation in the summer months, when temperatures rise at the same time.

Climate in South Florida: Miami Beach, Fort Lauderdale, Florida Keys

Climate table for Miami

Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature in ° C 24 25 26 28 30 31 32 33 32 30 27 25
Min. Temperature in ° C 15 15 18 19 22 23 25 25 24 22 19 16
Hours of sunshine per day 7 8 9 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 8 7
Water temperature in ° C 22 22 23 25 27 29 30 31 30 28 26 24
Rainy days per month 5 6 6 6 9 10 13 16 14 11 7 5

Best travel time for Miami and South Florida

Miami is located in southwest Florida and is its most famous city. Located on Biscayne Bay , part of the Atlantic Ocean, Miami has fantastic beaches for an unforgettable beach holiday . Miami Beach is particularly popular for beach vacationers . The climate in Miami is tropical. The summers are hot and humid and the winters are dry and warm. Therefore, the best time to travel to Miami is winter time. In the months of November to April, you can spend a great beach holiday with perfect weather conditions in Miami and the other southern cities of Florida. The rainy season prevails from May to October with an average of 14 rainy days per month. In addition, this time is the Atlantic hurricane season , which leads to squalls in southern Florida. Therefore, summer time is considered the low season in Miami and winter time is considered the high season. This is also reflected in the price for trips to Miami. If you have decided on a Miami vacation, you should definitely make a detour to the neighboring city of Fort Lauderdale . Also known as “the Venice of America”, it particularly shines with the Hollywood district, where you can expect wonderful stretches of beach and a wonderful view.

Climate table for Key West

Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature in ° C 24 25 26 28 30 31 32 32 31 29 26 25
Min. Temperature in ° C 18 19 20 22 24 25 26 26 25 23 20 19
Hours of sunshine per day 8 9 10 11 11 11 10 10 9 9 8 7
Water temperature in ° C 24 24 24 25 26 27 29 30 29 28 27 25
Rainy days per month 6 6 5 6 7 9 8 9 13 12 9 6

Best time to travel to the Florida Keys

The islands at the southern end of Florida are called Keys. The best known are the Florida Keys as they are connected by 42 bridges. The island chain ends with the city of Key West , which is particularly popular with beach holidaymakers. The Florida Keys climate is tropical and more similar to the Caribbean than Florida. No wonder, because the Caribbean is not far away. It’s only 140 kilometers from Key West to Cuba. The Gulf Stream brings the warm waters of the Caribbean to the Florida Keys. Therefore, it is on average warmer on the island chain and there is less rainfall than in the other areas of Florida. In Key West, due to its location in the Atlantic Ocean, there are frequent hurricanes in the summer months. It is also the rainy season on the Florida Keys during this time. On average, it rains 40 percent of the days in the summer months from June to September. So the best time to travel to the Florida Keys is autumn, winter and spring. Low precipitation and pleasant warm weather enable you to enjoy a wonderful beach holiday in December, January, February, March, April and May .

Florida Attractions 2

Top Experiences of Barbados

Top Experiences of Barbados

Exotic Barbados with its white sandy beaches is a dream destination for many. The easternmost island of the Caribbean, Barbados, is a tropical getaway that also offers a coastline on the Atlantic side according to countryaah. With a population of about 285,000, the country is popular with both world stars and package tourists – the island has everything from luxury to the usual Caribbean way of life.

Barbados is only allowed to be and enjoy the wonderful milieu

1. Snorkeling and turtles

Stunning sandy beaches and clear turquoise seawater are trademarks of Barbados. It is more accurate to take a dip in the gentle warm waters of the Caribbean, regardless of the season. An absolute activity in the holidaymaker’s program is Snorkeling as well as a boat trip during which participants are taken to meet brave turtles.

Up to 12-20 meters of views into the deep sea make snorkeling a memorable experience. If luck goes, the snorkeler can watch the turtle up close, even eye to eye. Boat trips depart from at least Bridgetown Harbor.

The south side of the island is also a suitable surfing area for beginners

The turtles will boldly watch the boaters.

2. Oistins Fish Market

This cultural Friday night event is not to be missed. The Oistins Fish Market, held every Friday night in the south of the island, brings the local population and holidaymakers together in comfort.

The food stalls offer some of the island’s most famous fish dishes, rum cola, music, dancing and performances. The pace of Reggae already rhythms the relaxed and joyful atmosphere. Friday nights in particular on this island are the best of the week!

3. Rum factory

Short for BRB by abbreviationfinder, Barbados is the birthplace of rum and the first island in the Caribbean to start making a drink. The locals are rightly very proud of their drink. For example, a factory visit to the world’s oldest rum, Mount Gay Rum, will give you a better insight into the history and preparation of the drink.

Many may not know that rum is made from a liquid pressed from sugar cane and distilled into the Caribbean style. In addition, you can visit the factory to taste both light and darker rum shades, as well as shop for gifts, for example.

4. Bridgetown

In the island’s capital, Bridgetown, you can feel the wings of history’s wings. Barbados used to be a British colony for more than three hundred years. In Bridgetown, you can take the best shopping tour on the island, for example, at the end of Broad Street.

Clothes, colorful souvenirs and rum shops are on offer. If you are not interested in running in the shops, it is worth taking a walk in the city, just because of the magnificent and colorful buildings.

Downtown Bridgetown has plenty of hustle and bustle and shopping.

5. Reggae bus

The island of Barbados is small and can be easily explored in one day. There are other options than your own rental car. In addition to local buses, the island is toured by minibuses / vans driven by private drivers, loosely called reggae buses.

It is not worth looking at the schedules on these buses or even trying to find out. The bus can accommodate more passengers than you might think, the rhythms of reggae resound and the atmosphere is relaxed. Once you get on board, you can go as far as you want for just a few Barbados dollars.

6.Compound fish and spicy fish cakes

Flying Fish is perhaps the most famous delicacy in Barbados and is consumed down with rum, of course. Coucou, which is made from cornmeal and ocher, is eaten as a side dish.

Another delicious local delicacy is fish cakes, or Spicy Fish Cakes. Spicy fish cakes can be found on the list of almost every restaurant and are served with Maria Rosie sauce. The sauce is made from mayonnaise, lime juice and tabasco, among other things.

Downtown Bridgetown

7. Surfing

Have you dreamed of surfing? Barbados is a great place to try surfing. The varied beaches offer waves for both beginners and more experienced surfers. The island east side of the strongest waves are not recommended for the novice.

Barbados has dozens of surf schools ranging from private tuition to group lessons for several students.

If surfing is not exciting, you can also enjoy water sports on the island, including snorkelling, diving or water skiing.

The south side of the island is also a suitable surfing area for beginners.

8. The Gap

When you want to head out into the evening after the Oistins Fish Market, you should head a short distance to St. Lawrence Gap. Here you will find in the evenings restaurants to suit all tastes as well as the best bars and nightclubs in the south of the island.

For example, the personal nightclub The Reggae Lounge lets you dance to the beat of reggae music well into the morning.

9. Experience Bathsheba

There are stunning rugged beaches on the east side of Barbados and on the Atlantic side. Bathsheba’s beaches serve an incredible seascape far across the Atlantic. These areas have some of the best surf beaches on the island, home to the famous surfing championships.

There are a few occasional cafes and restaurants in the area in case thirst or hunger can surprise you. However, the south and west side of the way, the service is not very much available. A visit to Bathsheba is certainly not an afterthought.


Barbados is only allowed to be and enjoy the wonderful milieu.

10. Island tour

A full tour of the island is an effective way to explore Barbados. The day tour offers stunning beaches, rugged mountains and jungle scenery. Because Barbados is small in area, with a length of only about 33.8 kilometers and a width of 22.5 kilometers, the island tour takes about five to six hours.

An island tour can be done either with a guide or by renting a car on your own. Local buses and reggae buses also run around the island at reasonable prices.

Greenland – Midnight Sun, Whales and Mighty Icebergs

Greenland – Midnight Sun, Whales and Mighty Icebergs

Inuit, whales, icebergs, glaciers, icy winds and warm locals. A paddling trip to Greenland is a trip nearby. Close to the water, close to nature, close to experiences that are not available at home. When the clouds burst open and the sun comes out, everything is perfect with heat, tailwind, flat sea and sun protection factor 30! A little hardship and many experiences are promised on this trip in the midnight sun among icebergs and whales. Short for GRL by abbreviationfinder, Greenland is one of countries starting with G listed on countryaah.

Greenland - Midnight Sun, Whales And Mighty Icebergs 2

Greenland – 12 days

Day 1 Copenhagen – Uummannaq

Early departure by flight from Copenhagen to Qaarsut via Greenland International Airport in Kangerlussuaq. In Qaarsut we change means of transport to a helicopter for a 10 minute journey to the island of Uummannaq. Before the end of a long day, your guide will tell you what is important to keep in mind when paddling in Arctic conditions and you will have the opportunity to ask questions. We shoot a little during the day already the first day to get “in phase” with the midnight sun. The best time of day is when the sun is low for several hours and colors the landscape and icebergs beautifully red.

Day 2 Introduction / Paddling

During the day we get acquainted with the equipment we will use during the paddling. Everyone gets the opportunity to make individual adjustments and we end the day with a paddle around Uummannaq for a first feeling of paddling in Arctic waters. Day stage: Approx. 18 km

Day 3 Canoeing

We launch our kayaks and meet Storön. The crossing is 9 kilometers, but because the island is so high and the air so clear, one can easily be misled into thinking that it is a few kilometers there. Storön offers both a lunch place and a night camp. Day stage: Approx. 20 km

Day 4 Canoeing

After a hearty breakfast we pack the kayaks and slide further north. The long days allow us to paddle at a leisurely pace when it suits us best and with plenty of room for flexibility. We expect to land at one of the fjord estuaries and enjoy the western sun that gilds the slope where the fresh water meanders down to the sea. During the summer, many whales spend their time in Arctic waters and hopefully we see whales on several occasions. Some of the marine mammals we hope to see are herring whales, humpback whales, humpback whales, harp seals, and ringed seals. Day stage: Approx. 20 km

Greenland - Midnight Sun, Whales And Mighty Icebergs

Day 5 Canoeing / Hiking

We explore one of the fjord intestines in the area and take the opportunity to hike up to the nearby lake to explore the ice sheet in the distance. If we are lucky, we will see mountain foxes who are vigilantly keeping an eye on us. Day stage: Approx. 15 km

Day 6 Canoeing

Our stage to the next camp site offers a slightly shorter paddling. Once there, there is of course the opportunity to explore the surroundings further with our kayaks. We camp on a sandy beach with fantastic views of the fjord and icebergs. Here we find well-preserved remains of ancient cultures buried in stone tombs along the shore. Our guide tells about how the Inuit survived in one of the most barren places on earth and about the kayak’s function from the past to the present. During the entire paddling, we naturally try to give as much space and flexibility as possible to activities such as photography, fishing and shorter hikes. Day stage: Approx. 10 km

Day 7 Canoeing

During the morning we are awakened by huge “thunder sounds” from the nearby glacier, Sermilik, where the ice sheet flows into the sea. When the glacier front collapses, the water fills with amounts of ice and a roaring sound fills the fjord. We paddle closer to the glacier, and are probably met by seals resting on the ice. We return to our camp where we stay another night. If the weather is good, as it often is, today we see the mouth of the Uummannaqfjord. The 120 km long fjord is perfect for kayaking with its protected location. The high mountains and islands protect against any westerly winds that can cause waves. Day stage: 20-30 km

Day 8 Canoeing

We paddle south and have our eyes wide open in search of whales. It is precisely this stretch that we are most likely to see the majestic mammals swim past us. From here we also have a view of the mighty Nussuaq peninsula. Day stage: Approx. 10 km

Day 9 Paddling / Uummannaq

We start our paddling again towards Ummaannaq and if we are lucky we catch fish that gild our last meal in the field (weather and wind decide when we make the last crossing back to Uummannaq)

Day 10 Buffer Day / Uummannaq

“Extra day” to compensate for any delays during the trip. If everything went as planned, we will use this day to explore Uummannaq and its surroundings, see below.

We spend the day exploring the island of Uummannaq itself. We go on a hike up the mountain for a dizzying view of the area. The evening then ends with a wonderful outdoor barbecue where we enjoy the last sunset and discuss the week that has been.

Day 11 Buffer Day / Uummannaq

After a quiet morning return to Copenhagen via Kangerlussuaq.

Day 12 Return home

You land again in Copenhagen in the morning

Greenland - Midnight Sun, Whales And Mighty Icebergs 3