Category: South America

History of Valparaíso, Chile

History of Valparaíso, Chile

Origins

The area where Valparaíso was later developed was inhabited before the arrival of the Spanish conquerors by the monkeys, an eminently fishing people who moved from one place to another according to their needs. They had rafts made of wolf skin for fishing and also fed on wild fruits. The monkeys used to fish and gather shellfish and inhabited the slopes of the hills very close to the fishing places and beaches. They practiced barter with the cultures of the interior, especially to obtain pottery, since the collecting peoples are transhumant and generally do not have pottery production. They are also known as shell culture. These were the original residents of Valparaíso who belonged to the southern sector of the Inca empire. The sector that extends between Concón and Punta Duprat, where the Molo de Abrigo is located, was known as Alimapu (‘land destroyed by fire’) by the picunches, while the area where the city later developed was called Quinti l for the monkeys.

Colonial era (16th to 19th centuries)

The official discovery of Valparaíso for Europeans occurred within the framework of the expedition to Chile by the Spanish Diego de Almagro, who in 1534 organized from Cuzco (after “differences” with Francisco Pizarro) his trip to Chile that began on 3 in July 1535, seeking large amounts of gold as the Incas had in the southern country. For this, apart from the land expedition commanded by Almagro, there was a support marine expedition under the command of Juan de Saavedra, which included the Santiaguillo ship. This ship anchored in Quintil Bay in the first days of September 1536 and Saavedra renamed it Valparaíso in memory of his native town in Europe.

Although his mission to find gold in Chile was a resounding failure (and the trip to the country, both outward and return, an ordeal), he discovered to his surprise two Spaniards who were already perfectly settled: Gonzalo Calvo de Barrientos and Antón Closed, both living in the indigenous way in what is now Quillota, in central Chile. Realizing that further south there was cold territory, without gold and populated by hostile indigenous people, Almagro decides to return to Cuzco, where he began a fratricidal fight with Pizarro. In this conflict, Captain Pedro de Valdivia stood out on Pizarro’s side, whose presence helped the subsequent victory over Almagro.

In 1536 the Santiaguillo arrived in the bay of Valparaíso (Quintil), which is part of a flotilla of caravels that brought supplies for the first advance of Diego de Almagro, commissioned by the viceroy of Peru to conquer Chile. The flotilla is in charge of Don Alonso de Quinteros who stops in the bay of Cancanicagua (today Quinteros), advancing the Santiaguillo to the south and is found from land by Don Juan de Saavedra who is recognized as the discoverer of the sector.

Pedro de Valdivia, Spanish conqueror, founded Santiago de Chile in 1541 and the 13 of September of 1544 designates Valparaíso as “natural port of Santiago” and appoints the marine Genovese Juan Bautista Pastene as a first lieutenant in the territorial south and first official public of the Quintil valley.

At his own request, Pizarro granted Valdivia permission to “conquer” Chile. Its first official act was the founding of the city of Santiago de la Nueva Extremadura in 1541, with Valparaíso being designated as its natural port on September 3, 1544.

In 1552, the privileged geographical situation of Valparaíso helped to consolidate the founding process of the new lands granted to the King of Spain, for which, in November 1552, a port was ordered to be built in the bay. A small village begins to grow but its movement and activity are very poor. This is mainly due to the fact that Lima and its natural port, El Callao, important enclaves of the Viceroyalty of Peru, exercise a monopoly that negatively affects the commercial management of Valparaíso.

In 1559. A sketch of the city begins to be outlined, with a chapel rising in the place that today is occupied by the church of La Matriz. At that time, the whole place was very close to the coast and wineries and small houses appeared around it.

At this time, the looting, destruction and deaths caused by pirates were relatively common, especially those of English origin such as: Francis Drake in 1587 or Richard Hawkins at the end of the 16th century.

On 13 September as as 1599 sets sail from Goerce the Dutch privateer Oliver Van Noort. He was the first Dutchman to circumnavigate the world. Van Noort attacked Valparaíso in 1600 burning three ships and capturing three other ships. He acted cruelly executing thirty Spanish sailors who he captured, keeping only one navigator to guide him to Peru, whom he simply threw into the sea when he was no longer useful. Earlier, near Concepción, Van Noort attacked a ship called El Buen Jesús. Before being caught, the captain threw his treasure into the sea and the Dutchman did not know until time after his loss.

In August 1614, the German privateer at the service of Holland George de Spielberg called Joris Van Spielbergen set sail from the port of Texel with a fleet of six ships, who anchored in the port of Valparaíso in 1615.. He had been informed by one of the captains of his ships of the presence of lights and the distant sound of a horn. Two hundred men landed attacking the town made up of three squalid buildings. The Spaniards defended themselves by firing at the landing boats hidden among the cliffs, then starting towards the ravines of the hills. The Dutch embarked and bombarded the beach, thus constituting the first bombardment that Valparaíso suffered.

In 1676 the construction of the Castillo de la Concepción began.

In 1682. One of the major consequences of the visits of corsairs is the declaration of Valparaíso as “Plaza Fuerte”, which begins the construction of several castles and forts. These sites never fired a single shot.

In 1684 the construction of the San José castle began in front of the Valparaíso bay, providing great identity to the sector.

The 8 of July of 1730 occurred a great earthquake of 8.75 on the Richter scale that hit the city of Valparaiso, as well as other places like Santiago and Rancagua. According to sources at the time, it lasted a quarter of an hour and generated a tsunami that affected areas ranging from the Peruvian city of Callao to the north, passing through Valparaíso (so far this is the only destructive tsunami in Valparaíso, flooding an area that goes from La Matriz Church in the south, to the current O’Higgins square in the north), Concepción, until reaching Valdivia in Chile in the south. This tsunami crossed the Pacific Ocean to destroy the Japanese province of Sendai.

The 17 of April of 1791, Ambrosio O’Higgins, Governor of Chile, establishes in Valparaiso the first Cabildo and points to “Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes de Puerto Claro” as the patron saint of Valparaiso. In addition, the name of the patron is proposed as a name for the city. Neighbors do not accept and complain to the King of Spain to keep the name of Valparaíso, which the King ratifies by royal decree of 1802, declaring it an official name.

Valparaíso remained a port town, inhabited sporadically (due to both natural disasters and damage caused by pirates), by no more than five thousand residents practically during all the years of the colonial era, with few houses, a church and a Pierbuilt by private initiative only in 1810, shortly before the de facto independence of Chile.

Due to the above, in Valparaíso, unlike other places in Chile and Latin America with similar antiquity, nothing that was built during the colonial era is preserved. Everything that can be seen in the city today was built after the independence of the country.

History of Valparaíso, Chile

Emigration to Chile

Emigration to Chile

Area: 756,102 km²
Residents: 17,574,003 (in 2017)
Population density: 23 E / km²
Form of Government: Republic
System of Government: Presidential democracy
Neighboring countries: Argentina, Peru, Bolivia Coast
length: 6,435 km
Capital: Santiago de Chile National
language: Spanish
Religion:
69.96 % Roman Catholic,
15% Protestant,
8.5% agnostic,
2.11% members of other Christian churches,
0.92% Mormons,
0.4% Jehovah’s Witnesses,
0.13% Jews
Road network: 80,651 km (right-hand traffic)
Currency: Chilean Peso (CLP)
1 CLP = 100 Centavos
Exchange rates:
1 EUR = 884.85 CLP
100 CLP = 0.11 EUR
1 CHF = 821.28 CLP
100 CLP = 0.12 CHF
(exchange rate from January 16, 2021)
Telephone area code: +56
Time zones: UTC-4
Mains voltage: 220 V
Seasons: are opposite to those of the northern hemisphere

  • Spring: Sep. until Nov.
  • Summer: Dec. to Feb.
  • Autumn: March to May
  • Winter: June to August

In 2020, 220 Germans officially emigrated to Chile and 589 came back to their homeland. Within the 10 years from 2010 to 2019, 4,492 Germans officially emigrated to Chile and 5,382 moved back to Germany. This page gives an overview of the country and immigration. We go into detail on the following pages.

In recent years, the number of immigrants in Chile has been unusually high. Many people are looking for alternatives to their home country, which is no longer an option for them in the long term. Many countries that are particularly attractive for European emigrants are out of the question because the immigration regulations can hardly be fulfilled for most of those interested. Chile is still a pleasant exception here. A successful application for immigration does not require proof of sufficient knowledge of the national language, nor the submission of a medical certificate of health. The requirements to be met are kept within reasonable limits.

With a population of over 17.5 million, Chile ranks first on the Human Development Index within Latin America. Nevertheless, there is some development potential or a need to catch up compared to the leading European countries. The almost 4,300 km long and an average of only 180 km narrow country is a specialty due to its scenic diversity and beauty. Because Chile has a lot to offer: fantastic beaches on the Pacific Ocean, the mountainous region of the Andes (in winter a paradise for skiers), dreamy islands, part of the Antarctic and the Atacama Desert.

Chile not only offers a very attractive landscape with many different climatic zones, but also extremely friendly, open-minded and fun-loving residents. Due to the historical development of the population, Germans in particular are very welcome. They not only appreciate the quality of German products, but also the reliability, determination and punctuality as a special characteristic of Germans. As an immigrant, it is therefore easy to be quickly accepted in the new community.

Chile certainly cannot keep up with the conveniences that you have taken for granted. But you may come across values ​​that you have long believed lost. Precisely because everything is not yet perfect, there are still many options for offering special products and services. Specialists in medical, technical and scientific professions, experts in IT, as well as well-trained craftsmen in all areas are sought in order to meet the growing demands of the economy.

The Chilean state is paving the way for investors to drive the positive development of Chile forward. It is also worth mentioning that retirees of all ages are welcome. There are even special immigration requirements for this target group. When making decisions, it is important to recognize the special position of Chile in Latin America and not to succumb to prejudice.

Immigration overview

Tourist visa

German citizens can enter the country as tourists for 90 days without the need for a consular visa.

Requirements: a passport that is valid beyond the duration of the stay (at least 6 months) and valid return tickets

Emigration to Chile

Other visas

  • Temporary residence visa – “Residentes Temporarios”
  • Student Visa – “Residentes Estudiantes”
  • Visa for foreign workers – “Residentes sujeto a contrato”
  • Permanent visa who has lived two years temporary visas in Chile and can demonstrate livelihood – “Permanencia Definitiva”

Special features and advantages at a glance

  • Quite uncomplicated and free economy
  • Most progressive country in South America
  • Friendly to foreigners, especially towards Germans
  • Good craftsmen and skilled workers are wanted
  • Nuclear power free
  • Cost of living cheap (LHK-I 72.5)
  • Low population density
  • Great variety of flora and fauna
  • Uncomplicated property acquisition
  • Inexpensive immigration
Chile Immigration Regulations

Chile Immigration Regulations

Immigration / immigration

Foreigners can get an immigrant visa in Chile if their activity contributes to the welfare and development of the country. The immigration permit is only granted to members of a professional group that is considered to be in short supply in Chile (e.g. technicians, academics and highly qualified craftsmen) and is issued by the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

If you want to live in Chile for a longer period of time, have copies of your certificates, birth certificates, passport photos and similar documents (or their translation) certified by the Chilean embassy in your country in advance.

Immigration opportunities

Changes in the near future – see article Chile – on the way to a new immigration law

Temporary residence visa “Residentes Temporarios”

This visa is issued to foreigners who have family ties to Chile, as well as foreign investors (e.g. when buying real estate), researchers, scientists, representatives of religious associations and foreign citizens who are posted by foreign companies and act as technical advisors. Registering a trade is enough.

Requirements:

  • Family ties to Chile: spouses with Chilean citizenship, parents or children of Chilean citizenship, ancestors with Chilean citizenship, spouses and children of foreigners residing in Chile, parents of foreigners of legal age residing in Chile
  • Passport with a period of validity for the requested period
  • Medical health certificate showing that the applicant does not have a contagious disease.
  • Criminal record certificate
  • Application, the reason and the period of time as well as personal description of the applicant and information about the place of residence in Chile. If the applicant is married to a Chilean citizen, the spouse must sign the application (it is also advisable to provide the applicant’s telephone number and the date of travel).
  • Proof of income or assets (low income or pension is enough)
  • 3 passport photos

Note:
The processing time is approximately four weeks if the applicant pays the fax fee. After the visa has been issued, there is a period of 90 days to enter Chile. The applicant must collect the visa personally at the consulate. The visa is issued for a maximum of one year. In Chile you can apply for a “permanent residence visa”.

Application cost: $ 75

Student visa “Residentes Estudiantes”

Requirements:

  • Confirmation of admission from the university or the training institution recognized by the Chilean state
  • Proof of financing your livelihood (loan and / or scholarship). Otherwise it must be proven that sufficient means are available to cover the cost of living (proof of income, bank balance, etc.)
  • Affidavit on the basis of which the parents affirm that they will pay for the living costs
  • Passport with a period of validity for the requested period
  • Medical certificate showing that the applicant does not have a contagious disease
  • Criminal record certificate
  • 3 passport photos

Note:
The visa is only issued for a maximum of one year. The visa can be extended in Chile. It is not allowed to pursue an employment relationship with a student visa. After the visa has been issued, there is a period of 90 days to enter Chile. The applicant must collect the visa personally at the consulate.

Application cost: $ 75

Visa for foreign workers “Residentes sujeto a contrato” – Contractually obliged foreigners

Requirements:

  • The employment contract
  • Passport with a period of validity for the requested period
  • Medical health certificate stating that the applicant does not have a contagious disease
  • Criminal record certificate
  • Application, the reason and the period of time as well as personal description of the applicant and information about the place of residence in Chile. If the applicant is married to a Chilean citizen, the spouse must sign the application (it is also advisable to provide the applicant’s telephone number and the date of travel)
  • Proof of income and assets

Application cost: $ 75

Note:
The employment contract must be signed by the employer in the presence of a notary in Chile and legalized by the Ministry of Foreign Relations. If the contract was signed only by the employer, then the applicant must sign the document in the presence of the Consul of Chile. The applicant must hand over all other documents to the consulate in advance.

The visa is issued for a maximum of two years. If you wish to remain in Chile after two years, you can apply for a permanent residence visa (“Permanencia Definitiva”). After the visa has been issued, there is a period of 90 days to enter Chile. The applicant must collect the visa personally at the consulate.

Further visa options are:

  • “Residentes Oficiales” – diplomats and officials
  • “Asilados Politicos y Refugiados” – political asylum seekers and refugees
  • “Permanencia Definitiva” – permanent residence

Help with immigration

Atalah and Binfa law firm

Mrs. Dr. Monika Broecking works as a German lawyer for the Chilean law firm Atalah and Binfa. She is responsible for the German and English speaking clientele. The firm is based in Pucon, Region IX.

In addition to the legal area, she can bring her many years of experience in Germany as a bank manager, in marketing and as an independent corporate and personnel consultant. In New Zealand, with her company ECC European Consulting Company, she has placed immigrants mainly from Europe in jobs in New Zealand and has worked hand in hand with immigration consultants. She now lives in Chile and brings her extensive professional and private experience as an immigrant to two countries to the advice of her clients.

Miss Dr. Broecking advises on all types of visa applications for Chile, permanent residence permit, application for citizenship, purchase of real estate, investments, assistance in dealing with banks and insurance companies, as well as Germans resident in Chile on legal questions affecting Chile and / or Germany. If you have any initial questions, please contact her free of charge: [email protected]

Atalah y Binfa Abogados
Dr. Monika Broecking
General Urrutia 283 of 47
Pucón / Región de la Araucanía
Tel.: (45) 2441679 / (9) 9 2991742
https://immigrationchile.com/de/

Move to Chile

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Chile Immigration Regulations

Latin America Religion

Latin America Religion

The dominant religion in Latin America since colonial times has been Christianity, to which around 92.5% of the almost 590 million residents profess: around 80% (in relation to baptism) belong to the Catholic Church (corresponds to 41% of Catholics worldwide), over 10% Protestant and around 7% independent churches (including Pentecostals and charismatics in particular). The proportion of Catholic Christians is, however, much lower, since many baptized Catholics de facto belong to one of the Pentecostal churches and congregations that are numerous today in Latin America (strong growth particularly in Brazil and Guatemala); Religious statistics assume that almost 8% of Latin American Christians have such a »dual membership«. Orthodox (0.18%) and Anglican Christians (0.15%) form one v. a. minority created by migration. The numerically largest Orthodox immigrant communities are in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Venezuela. The proportion of Christian “fringe groups” (Unitarians, Mormons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, etc.) is around 1.9%. In addition, around 1% of Latin Americans describe themselves as Christians, but do not belong to any denomination.

The largest non-Christian religious minority are Muslims (0.27%); other non-Christian minorities are the Jews (0.16%), Bahais (0.15%), Hindus (0.13%) and Buddhists (0.13%). The Hindus and Muslims make up large population groups in percentage terms in Guyana, Suriname and in Trinidad and Tobago; the numerically largest Jewish communities are in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay and Venezuela. The number of followers of the non-Christian new religions is estimated at 0.3%. There is also – v. a. in Brazil – numerous followers of European Spiritism (Kardecism), the number of which is given as up to 2.26%. The indigenous population mostly belongs to the Catholic Church, but often combines the Catholic practice of faith with elements of the pre-colonial religions, that have survived among parts of the indigenous population (in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru). Many Latin Americans of African descent practice as Christians (mostly Catholics) at the same time one of those who originated in Latin America Afro-American religions or take part in some of their cult acts: Umbanda, Candomblé, Macumba and the religion of the Yoruba (Xango) in Brazil; Voodoo in Haiti; the religion of the Yoruba (Santería) in Cuba; Rastafarian in Jamaica. – The number of people who either do not belong to any religion or explicitly describe themselves as atheists is 3.37%. The majority of the population in Cuba does not belong to any religious community.

The Christian mission of Latin America began with the colonial conquest. The Catholic Church was closely associated with the ruling Spanish and Portuguese upper classes, but from the outset campaigned against the practices of the conquistadors and for humane treatment of the Indians as well as Indian protection legislation (B. de Las Casas ; Bull “Veritas ipsa” Pope Pauls III.[1537]). During the five hundredth anniversary of the evangelization of Latin America in 1992, these events also gave the Catholic Church the opportunity to subject the “light and dark sides” of colonization to a critical view. For centuries, the Catholic Church played a key role in determining political life in Latin America. After gaining independence in the 19th century, she supported the Creole aristocracy and the conservative parties. A legal separation of the state and the Catholic Church did not take place in the majority of Latin American states until the 20th century. Today religious freedom is protected by law in all Latin American states; The state religion is still the Catholic denomination in Costa Rica.

Since the 1930s, there has gradually been a conscious awareness of social injustices and a turn to social issues in individual circles of the Catholic Church. This rethinking manifested itself for the first time at the 1st Latin American Bishops ‘Conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1955 (there also founding of the “Latin American Bishops’ Council” [“Consejo Episcopal Latinoamericano”, abbreviation CELAM]; in 1959 the “Latin American Union of Religious” [“Confederación Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Religiosos / as «, abbreviation CLAR]; seat: Bogotá), where individual bishops campaigned for social reforms. This development was reinforced by the Second Vatican Council and the papal social encyclicals.

In the 1960s, according to COUNTRYAAH.COM, groups of priests and laypeople organized in some Latin American countries who campaigned for a change in political and economic structures. Especially under their influence, the course for a reorientation of Latin American theology as liberation theology was set at the Latin American Bishops’ Conferences in Medellín (1968) and Puebla (1979). Since then, Latin American Catholicism has taken on the central concerns of liberation theology and with the base churches Established new church structures, but the clergy (especially the bishops) are still largely conservative and traditional in character. The 4th General Assembly of the Latin American Bishops in Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) in 1992 took place against the background of the church’s 500-year presence in Latin America and was dedicated to the main themes of the new evangelization of the South American continent and inculturation, understood as gaining an unmistakably Latin American church identity. The 5th Latin American Bishops’ Conference 2007 in Aparecida (opened by Pope Benedict XVI.) deliberately placed itself in the series of the previous four bishops’ conferences and took up their main themes from the perspective of Latin American Catholicism at the beginning of the 21st century. The main topics were, against the background of the growing influence of Pentecostal-Evangelical free churches in Latin America (especially in Brazil), the renewal of the profile of the Catholic Church as the national church of Latin America and, with a view to the ecclesiastically unacceptable social division of the Latin American societies, that in the Catholic social teaching established solidarity for the poor. The great importance of Latin America for the Catholic world church as a whole was presented by Pope Benedict XVI.in his opening speech with the formulation of the “continent of hope”. It may be seen as a tangible expression of this “hope” that the previous Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, who was elected as his successor after Benedict resigned from office at the beginning of 2013, is not only the first Pope from Latin America, but also with the choice of his Pope’s name, Francis, the church’s concern for the poor has also written very explicitly in the program.

Latin America Religion

The immigration of Protestants to and the Protestant mission in Latin America began in the 19th century. The v. a. Missionary activity originating from North America has resulted in the establishment of numerous Protestant churches and communities, the membership of which has been growing rapidly, particularly in recent times. The Latin American Council of Churches (Consejo Latinoamericano de Iglesias, abbreviation CLAI; seat: Quito), founded in 1982 by over 100 Protestant churches in Huampaní (Peru), has member churches in 20 countries in Latin America. The “Caribbean Conference of Churches”, abbreviation CCC; Spanish “Conferencia de Iglesias del Caribe”; seat: Port of Spain) was founded in 1973 in Kingston (Jamaica) and has 33 member churches. Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States in Central America and the Caribbean and the regional Anglican councils in South America.

Environmental Impacts on the Brazilian Coast

Environmental Impacts on the Brazilian Coast

The beginning of Brazilian colonization by the coast determined the formation of the first cities and population centers in this region. The demographic concentration has many stretches with more than 100 inhabitants per km 2 , especially in the Southeast and Northeast stretches. About 22% of Brazilians live by the sea, which is equivalent to more than 35 million people.

The urban concentration on the coast causes serious pollution problems, since almost all the sewage is discharged into the sea by effluents, without any type of treatment. This is one of the factors that contribute to the destruction of estuaries and mangroves – fundamental areas for the reproduction of several marine animals.

There are very few submarine outfalls that release sewage over distances that pose less risk to the population. Ideally, sewage treatment and discharge into water through these outfalls would be ideal .

Real estate speculation causes the expansion of urbanization and the disorderly occupation of natural spaces – in most cases, without the physical structure for such uses – which endanger not only the environment , but also the buildings and the lives of residents.

According to Rrrjewelry, an important part of Brazilian economic production is located in the coastal and marine areas, such as oil and natural gas extraction; industrial activities such as those in the Baixada Santista (SP) – petrochemical and steel industries (Cosipa) -; in addition to the movement of port facilities.

These activities also cause environmental impacts, due to the release of toxic substances into the oceans and accidents with oil spills. Not to mention air pollution as a result of the emission of toxic gases from industries, which affects vegetation, fauna and people in coastal environments.

The city of Cubatão – the main petrochemical and steelmaking hub on the coast of São Paulo – was once considered one of the most polluted in the world, with the air, soil and water channels contaminated by industrial waste. Today, the living conditions of the local population are eased due to government actions that inspect and fine companies that do not follow the current environmental legislation, and the interventions of NGOs – Non-Governmental Organizations – such as Greenpeace, which currently has adopted the strategy of buying shares to force companies to invest in the environment

As a result of urban-industrial expansion, the east coast and the southeast coast, especially the São Paulo strip, are the areas that suffer the most from environmental impacts.

On January 18, 2000, all the newspapers reported yet another “black spill” – a damaged Petrobras pipeline allowed 1.3 million liters of oil to contaminate Guanabara Bay.

The leak lasted 4 hours, but it will take 20 years for nature to return to what it was. The oil kills or weakens fish, poultry, shellfish, coastal vegetation – most forms of life that is the believer. Coral banks take decades to fully recover, because the oil inhibits their photosynthesis and reproductive capacity. The oil adheres to the birds’ wings, preventing them from flying and contaminating their digestive system. The stain also changes the alternating flow of fresh and salt water that produces the richness of the mangroves. Smaller rims can no longer grow and trees, with their roots suffocated, may lose their leaves. As a result, crustaceans that feed on decomposed leaves are in trouble.

Environmental Impacts on the Brazilian Coast

Unfortunately, accidents of this type are common:

  • in the last 30 years, there have been around 150 leaks associated with the Almirante Barroso Maritime Terminal, in São Sebastião – São Paulo coast – due to failures in the pipelines, lack of safety devices on the vessels or problems in the maintenance of ships;
  • in 1978, the Liberian ship Brazilian Marina, contracted by Petrobrás, spilled 6,000 m 3of oil on the beaches of São Sebastião;
  • in April 1999, 6 beaches in the same municipality were affected by an oil spill by a Petrobras emissary;
  • the same company was responsible for the biggest industrial accident in the history of Brazil – a leak followed by an explosion in Vila Socó, Cubatão (SP), which killed 98 people in 1984;
  • in 1975, Petrobras was also involved in the biggest accident in the Guanabara Bay – 5 million liters were spilled by the oil tanker Tarik.
Parana, Brazil Overview

Parana, Brazil Overview

Province since 1853, when it was separated from São Paulo, Paraná only became part of the Brazilian economy from the first half of the 20th century, when it became the largest coffee producer in the country. Also benefiting from the influx of European immigrants (Poles, Germans and Italians), the state, at the end of the century, presented a panorama of rapid industrialization and progress in all sectors of social life.

According to picktrue.com, the state of Paraná is located in the southern region of Brazil, where it occupies an area of ​​199,554km2. It is limited to the east with the Atlantic Ocean, to the north with São Paulo, to the south with Santa Catarina, to the northwest with Mato Grosso do Sul, to the southwest with Argentina and to the west with Paraguay. Its capital is Curitiba.

Climate

Three climatic types characterize the state of Paraná: the Cfa, Cfb and Cwa climates of the Köppen classification. The Cfa climate, subtropical with well-distributed rains during the year and hot summers, occurs in two distinct parts of the state, on the coastal plain and in the lower portions of the plateau, that is, in its western portion. It registers average annual temperatures of 19o C and annual rainfall of 1,500mm, somewhat higher on the coast than inland.

The Cfb climate, subtropical with well distributed rains during the year and mild summers, occurs in the highest part of the state and involves the crystalline plateau, the paleozoic plateau and the eastern part of the basaltic plateau. Average annual temperatures oscillate around 17o C and rainfall reaches about 1,200mm annually.

The Cwa climate, subtropical with hot summers and dry winters, occurs in the northwestern portion of the state. It is the so-called high altitude tropical climate, because unlike the two described above, which register well-distributed rains throughout the year, it presents rainfall typical of tropical regimes, with dry winters and rainy summers. The annual average temperature oscillates around 20o C and the annual rainfall reaches 1,300mm. Almost the entire state is subject to more than five days of frost per year, but in the southern portion and in the higher parts of the plateaus there are more than ten days. Snow appears sporadically in the Curitiba area.

Hydrography

The drainage network comprises rivers that flow directly to the coast and rivers that flow westward, tributaries of Paraná. The former have short courses, as they are born a short distance from the coast. The longest are those heading for the state of São Paulo, where the waters of the Ribeira de Iguape River will thicken. Most of the state’s surface is thus under the control of the tributaries of the Paraná River, of which the most extensive are Paranapanema, which borders São Paulo, and Iguaçu, which partly borders Santa Catarina and Argentina. The Paraná River marks the western limits of the state, separating it from Mato Grosso and Paraguay.

At the point of convergence of the dividing lines of Mato Grosso do Sul-Paraguay, Paraná-Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná-Paraguay were the falls of Sete Quedas, formed by the Paraná River when descending from the basaltic plateau to the gorge that led to the platinum plain. In 1982 two jumps were submerged, under protest from environmentalists, by the lake of the Itaipu dam. Further south, the Iguaçu River also descends from the basaltic plateau towards the same gorge. It then forms the falls of Iguaçu, which were not affected by the construction of the dam, since Itaipu is located upstream of the confluence of the two rivers.

Population

High rates of population growth characterized Paraná between the 1940s and 1960s, due to considerable human contingents coming, in large part, from the states of São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. These migratory currents were linked to the expansion, through the territory of Paraná, of agricultural areas in São Paulo and Santa Catarina, which moved in search of still virgin forest soils. The most populated areas of the state are those of Curitiba, from the north and west.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the population of Paraná reached only about 330,000 inhabitants, and in 1950 it was barely more than two million. From that period onwards, there was a rapid urbanization process. Not only has the number of cities increased dramatically, but the most important centers have experienced a sharp increase in population.

Urban network

The largest cities in the state, in addition to its capital, Curitiba, are Londrina, Maringá, Ponta Grossa, Cascavel, Foz do Iguaçu, Guarapuava, Colombo, Paranaguá, Umuarama, Apucarana and Campo Mourão.

The territory of Paraná is located within the area of ​​influence of the city of São Paulo. The metropolis of São Paulo commands the economic life of the state through the urban centers of Ourinhos, in São Paulo, and Jacarezinho, Maringá, Londrina and Curitiba, in Paraná. Ourinhos and Jacarezinho jointly dominate the eastern portion of northern Paraná; Londrina is the center of the region, and Maringá, the western part.

Curitiba serves the rest of the state of Paraná and almost all of the state of Santa Catarina, excluding the Tubarão region in the east and Chapecó in the west. The action of the capital, in its area of ​​influence of Paraná, is felt directly or through the intermediate centers of Ponta Grossa and Pato Branco. The area of ​​direct influence comprises the entire east and southeast of the state. Pato Branco serves the southwestern portion, and Ponta Grossa, the entire center and west.

Parana, Brazil Overview

Chile Travel Package

Chile Travel Package

Short for CI by abbreviationfinder, Chile – The land of adventure. South America begins where Panama ends and extends all the way down to Cape Horn where icy winds blow in from Antarctica to the south. 420 km of this stretch is covered by Chile along the west coast towards the Pacific Ocean. In South America you will find, among other things, the tango capital Buenos Aires, Brazil’s endless beaches, the kilometer-long glaciers in Patagonia, Easter Moais and the Inca Empire’s ancient capital, Cusco. It is easy to understand why so many people fall in love with South America. The exotic continent meets all expectations and dreams, whatever you expect or dream of. With Trackers you get a tailor-made program completely according to your own wishes.

Chile

CHILE

Santiago
In Santiago you will find everything from skyscrapers, subways and stressed people in your career, to cozy bohemian neighborhoods with Chileans from all walks of life. Many have connections to Sweden and it is easy to make new friends even if you do not remember all your school Spanish. Good places to meet people are at one of all the countless cafes where many slip in to grab a café con leche on the way to or from work.

Easter
Island Easter Island in the middle of the Pacific Ocean between South America and New Zealand is 400 km from the nearest coast. Rapa Nui, which is its Polynesian name, is an enigmatic place and the theories surrounding its Moais, the giant stone statues that made the island famous, are many. Here you also enjoy breathtaking Polynesian nature with volcanoes and fantastic South Sea beaches.

Patagonia & the
Land of Fire There is a drama and at the same time something extremely peaceful over the landscape in Patagonia. Contrasts and contradictions. It feels familiar and at the same time so fantastically distant. Patagonia and the Land of Fire are a paradise for nature lovers, with snow-capped mountain peaks, intense blue lakes and deep fjords.

Atacama The
desert landscape of northern Chile, near the Bolivian border, is one of the driest desert areas in the world. The Salar de Atacama salt lake is surrounded by geysers and salt mines with the Andes’ peaks in the background. The area is a plateau of salares (salt basins), sand and solidified lava where it never rains, making it the driest place in the world. Atacama’s extreme climate and altitude make the plateau very suitable for astronomical observations.

CHILE

Explora is a player with a wide range of nature experiences and was founded in 1993. Today, Explora owns and operates hotels and arranges expedition tours in 7 remote locations in South America. The business concept is to offer a new way of traveling based on carefully selected and in-depth tours of nature, the luxury of perfection and sustainable development. The expedition tours are what make Explora unique and they are constantly developing new routes. This year, more than 360 km of routes and more than 100 different tours are offered. In all 7 locations, you can experience something out of the ordinary, in-depth, deep-sea – on a higher level.

CHILE

The long, narrow Chile stretches along the west coast of South America according to countryaah. From north to south, the country is 420 km, but its width is on average less than 200 km. Relocated to Europe, Chile would run from southern Italy all the way to the Spitsbergen in the Arctic Ocean.

Climate

The climate alternates between extreme drought in the north and rain and humid air in the south. Central Chile has a temperate climate of southern European type with sunny summers and abundant rainfall in winter.

Visa

No – Nordic citizens can stay 90 days without a visa.

Currency

Chilean Peso – CLP

100CLP = 1.38SEK

Language

Spanish is the official language. Indigenous languages: mapudungun (mapuche), quechua and other indian languages.

Vaccinations

Mandatory – No compulsory vaccines are required for entry

Recommended – Children who have not had or previously been vaccinated against measles, mumps or rubella should be vaccinated against these diseases. Contact your vaccination center for personal needs.

Chile 2