Spain History – The First Christian States Part 3

Spain History – The First Christian States Part 3

Later, in the century. XI these states managed to overcome the Muslim reaction directed by ‛Abd ar-Raḥmān III and by al-Manṣūr, even if they were forced to recognize the supremacy of the caliph. Indeed, Sancho I of Navarre (905-25), won at Valdenjunquera together with Ordoño II (920) and pursued as far as Pamplona, ​​which was sacked and partly destroyed (924), managed to push on Nájera and Tudela. occupy Viguera, and with the help of León and Castile, perhaps, even to win just before dying. And then his state, strengthened with the annexation of Aragon – which Endregodo Galíndez, daughter of Count Galindo Aznáres, brought as a dowry to her husband, King García Sánchez (925-70) – during the reign of this sovereign and his mother and guardian, Queen Tota, he saw his troops fighting in Simancas alongside those of Ramiro II of León, he actively participated in the civil wars that broke out in León and shared the policy of Sancho I of León towards al-Manṣūr. At the same time, although at the death of Guifre I the unity of his state, divided between his sons, was broken and al-Manṣūr came to conquer Barcelona (985), nevertheless Borrell II, count of Barcelona, ​​Ausona and Gerona (died in 992), he managed to retake the city with his own strength – and then he refused to make an act of vassalage to the Capetians, who had put this condition to help him – and his son Ramón Borrell (992-1018) took part in the Christian incursion, which he reached as far as Cordova (1010). he actively participated in the civil wars that broke out in León and shared the policy of Sancho I of León towards al-Manṣūr. At the same time, although at the death of Guifre I the unity of his state, divided between his sons, was broken and al-Manṣūr came to conquer Barcelona (985), nevertheless Borrell II, count of Barcelona, ​​Ausona and Gerona (died in 992), he managed to retake the city with his own strength – and then he refused to make an act of vassalage to the Capetians, who had put this condition to help him – and his son Ramón Borrell (992-1018) took part in the Christian incursion, which he reached as far as Cordova (1010). he actively participated in the civil wars that broke out in León and shared the policy of Sancho I of León towards al-Manṣūr. At the same time, although at the death of Guifre I the unity of his state, divided between his sons, was broken and al-Manṣūr came to conquer Barcelona (985), nevertheless Borrell II, count of Barcelona, ​​Ausona and Gerona (died in 992), he managed to retake the city with his own strength – and then he refused to make an act of vassalage to the Capetians, who had put this condition to help him – and his son Ramón Borrell (992-1018) took part in the Christian incursion, which he reached as far as Cordova (1010).

According to Sportsqna.com, the formation of the great Christian monarchies. – A first grouping of these states occurred in the first half of the century. XI: it was made possible precisely by those old and new kinship of their sovereigns and by that commonality of interests, to which we have mentioned, and was facilitated by the particular conditions of Muslim Spain, which, on the other hand, was divided into the “kingdoms of Taifas “, and, torn by deep internal struggles, it could no longer control the progress of the Christian monarchies. Indeed, to the inherited possessions (Navarre and Aragon) Sancho III of Navarre el Mayor(about 1000-35) between 1015 and 1025 he added a large part of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza by right of succession or conquest; he also strengthened his authority over the Cantabria already occupied by his grandfather; as husband of the daughter of Sancho García of Castile, on the death without male descent of his brother-in-law García Sánchez (1028) he took possession of his county; exploiting the tragic end of Alfonso V el Nobleof León (999-1027), which fell during the siege of Viseo, and the weakness of his heir Bermudo III (1027-37), occupied the part between the Pisuerga and the Cea of ​​the kingdom of León. Finally, fearful of his power, other princes also had to recognize his sovereignty: it is certain that he assumed the titles of king of Pamplona, ​​Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorza, Castile, Ávila, León, Asturias, Astorga, Pallás, even of Gascogne. and Barcelona. Now, undoubtedly, this unity lasted a few years, because, at his death, Sancho divided the state among his sons, and left Navarre with the city of Nájera, Guipúzcoa and Vizcaya to the eldest son García; Castile and the aforementioned part of the kingdom of León, all elevated to a kingdom, to Ferdinand; Sobrarbe and Ribagorza to the youngest son Gonzalo, and Aragon, again promoted to kingdom,el Magno(1035-65) divided his state among his sons and assigned Castile to Sancho II (1065-72), León to Alfonso VI (1065-1109), Galicia to García, the lordship of Zamora to Urraca, that of Toro to Elvira. However, the movement then started, despite some stops and some retreats, continued in the following years, through an intricate succession of complex disputes, in which no means were spared: not the fratricidal struggle, because García of Navarre died in the battle of Atapuerca, near Burgos, in 1054 fighting against his brother Ferdinando; not the alliance with Muslim princes, since, for example, García himself in his war against Ferdinand I made use of Mohammedans; Alfonso VI and García of Galicia appealed for aid to the rulers of Toledo and Seville respectively in their dispute with Sancho II, and García of the same previous ally in that against Alfonso VI. Fernando I as the husband of the sister of Bermudo III of León, was able to occupy the still independent part of this kingdom, when Bermudo fell in the battle of Támara (Palencia) in 1037, in a vain attempt to regain the territories of his state which were in the dominion of the brother in law; and the unity of his Leonese-Castilian monarchy was reconstituted by Alfonso VI, when Sancho II was killed at the siege of Zamora, who had already defeated his brothers and was about to submit to his authority all the dominions of his father, and when the fate of arms turned unfavorable to García of Galicia, who rushed in vain to uphold his rights. Furthermore, Ramiro I of Aragon (1035-1063) took possession of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza; his son Sancho Ramírez (1063-94) also became king of Navarre, when Sancho IV (1054-76), successor of García of Navarra (1035-54), was killed in Peñalén by his bastard brother; and the two crowns remained on the heads of the kings of Aragon Pedro I (1094-1104) and Alfonso Iel Batallador (1104-34).

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 3

Comments are closed.