Spain History – The First Christian States Part 4

At the same time great progress was made towards Catalan unity: and even in Barcelona fratricide bloodied the count’s throne if, as it seems, Ramón Berenguer II was killed by his brother Berenguer Ramón II, sons and heirs of Ramón Berenguer I, who had left to them their own domains. With this count (1035-76), son of Berenguer Ramón I el Corbat (el Curvo, 1018-35), the county of Barcelona placed itself at the head of the various counties of the region: the brothers gave up the paternal inheritance in his favor and some accounts entered into agreements with him or declared themselves his vassals. Then, Ramón Berenguer III el Gran (el Grande, 1096-1131) obtained the counties of Besalú (1111) and Cerdaña (1117); so that, at his death, only the counties of Urgel, Roussillon and Ampurias, of Pallás remained independent.

According to Sunglassestracker.com, the formation of these vast political organisms, as well as the means employed to achieve it, and, in contrast, the contemporary splitting of Muslim Spain facilitated and hastened the Christian reconquest. Indeed, the “kingdoms of Taifas” by their weakness were in themselves incapable of supporting the reinforced Catholic offensive; and, on the other hand, by siding with this or that prince in their struggles, thus increasing the matter of the dispute and justifying at least part of the expeditions made by Christian monarchs against them as allies of their adversaries, they made the conquest of their opponents easier. territories. Ferdinand I of León and Castile took possession of Viseo, Lamego (1057), Coimbra (1064), brought the frontier from Duero to Mondego, won the king of Valenza, he made tributaries the king of Zaragoza (from whom he took away the fortresses south of the Duero) and the kings of Toledo, Badajoz, Seville (1063), and in a raid he went as far as the vicinity of this city. His son Alfonso VI returned to invade the kingdom of Seville, which had supported García of Galicia, reaching as far as Tarifa (1082); with the occupation of Toledo (1085) it reached the Tagus and was able to consolidate the previous conquests between the Duero and this river, populating or seizing numerous cities, such as Salamanca, Ávila, Medina, Segovia, Talavera, Madrid, Uceda, Guadalajara, Mora, Alarcón, Uclés, Cuenca; he took possession of the castle of Aledo, near Lorca, which allowed him to dominate the kingdom of Almeria; besieged Zaragoza; he forced the monarch of Seville to give him the territories belonging to the kingdom of Toledo and usurped by him; he gave Valenza to his ancient ally in the struggles against Sancho, the former ruler of Toledo, who had been thrown from the throne by a revolution before the occupation of the city by the Castilians. In the same years Aragon also moved: Sancho Ramírez, fighting against the Muslims of Lérida, Tortosa, Huesca, with the help of the Count of Urgel, took possession of Barbastro (1065), conquered Graus (1083) and Monzón (1089), besieged Huesca, under whose walls he was mortally wounded. Finally, the count of Barcelona also took up arms: Ramón Berenguer I took some lands from the kingdom of Zaragoza and reached the Segre in Camarasa (1060) and in 1091 Berenguer Ramón II occupation of the city by the Castilians. In the same years Aragon also moved: Sancho Ramírez, fighting against the Muslims of Lérida, Tortosa, Huesca, with the help of the Count of Urgel, took possession of Barbastro (1065), conquered Graus (1083) and Monzón (1089), besieged Huesca, under whose walls he was mortally wounded. Finally, the count of Barcelona also took up arms: Ramón Berenguer I took some lands from the kingdom of Zaragoza and reached the Segre in Camarasa (1060) and in 1091 Berenguer Ramón II occupation of the city by the Castilians. In the same years Aragon also moved: Sancho Ramírez, fighting against the Muslims of Lérida, Tortosa, Huesca, with the help of the Count of Urgel, took possession of Barbastro (1065), conquered Graus (1083) and Monzón (1089), besieged Huesca, under whose walls he was mortally wounded. Finally, the count of Barcelona also took up arms: Ramón Berenguer I took some lands from the kingdom of Zaragoza and reached the Segre in Camarasa (1060) and in 1091 Berenguer Ramón IIel Fratricida(1076-97) conquered Tarragona. In this way it was also possible to resist the Almoravid offensive, which, indeed, at a later time, some sovereigns did not prevent them from progressing towards the south. Alfonso VI was defeated in Zalhaca (October 1086), but for several years he was able to keep most of his advanced positions, he returned to ally himself with the rulers of Granata, Seville, Badajoz, from the latter he obtained the sale of Santarém, Cintra, Lisbon (1093).

And if he was beaten at Uclés (1108), where his only son fell and where the Almoravids consolidated their power over almost all of Muslim Spain, and if on his death (1109), during the government of his daughter and heir Urraca (1109-26), the state was overwhelmed in very serious disputes; however, then the defense of the Leonese-Castilian monarchy was assumed directly and indirectly by Alfonso I of Aragon, husband of Urraca and fighting with her; Toledo still remained Christian, and the offensive was then resumed with ardor by his nephewex filiaof Alfonso VI, Alfonso VII (1126-57). At the same time, Peter I of Aragon defeated the troops of Saragossa in Alcoraz, rushed to the aid of Huesca and took possession of this city (1096), subjected Barbastro to his own dominion (1101); and his son Alfonso I, although distracted by the struggle he had to endure with his wife Urraca of Castile, won the ruler of Zaragoza in Valtierra, who fell in the battle; took Tudela (1114); after four years of siege he had Zaragoza, which in 1110 had fallen into the hands of the Almoravids (1118); in Cutanda he defeated the latter, rushed to regain the lost (1120); between 1120 and 1121 he occupied Magallón, Borja, Tarazona, Calatayud, Bubierca, Ariza, Daroca, Monreal del Campo; and took Mequinenza in the fight against the Muslims of Lérida and Fraga: a fight which, moreover, was not entirely lucky for him, because he was unable to overcome the opposition of the Count of Barcelona, ​​who desired Lérida for himself, and the resistance of Valenza de Murcia and Cordova, who intervened to defend their independence in the city. Finally, in the same years, Ramón Berenguer III with the help of the Count of Urgel conquered Balanguer, he initiated a crusade against the Muslims, which gave him the dominion of Valence for a short time; and, even if it was won by them (1124), nevertheless it was able to resist the incursions of the Almoravids, who came to threaten Barcelona. also in the same years, Ramón Berenguer III with the help of the count of Urgel conquered Balanguer, he initiated a crusade against the Muslims, which gave him the dominion of Valenza for a short time; and, even if it was won by them (1124), nevertheless it was able to resist the incursions of the Almoravids, who came to threaten Barcelona. also in the same years, Ramón Berenguer III with the help of the count of Urgel conquered Balanguer, he initiated a crusade against the Muslims, which gave him the dominion of Valenza for a short time; and, even if it was won by them (1124), nevertheless it was able to resist the incursions of the Almoravids, who came to threaten Barcelona.

Spain History - The First Christian States Part 4